Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS). Data for 2020. Geneva: UNAIDS; 2020.
Telisinghe L, Charalambous S, Topp SM, Herce ME, Hoffmann CJ, Barron P, et al. HIV and tuberculosis in prisons in sub-Saharan Africa. Lancet. 2016;388(10050):1215–27.
United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). HIV and AIDS Prevention, Care, Treatment Support in Prison Settings sub-Saharan Africa: Final Project Report (2017) Pretoria: UNODC; 2017.
Kato DM, Granich VR, Bui BD, Tran RH, Nadol RP, Jacka RD, et al. The potential impact of expanding antiretroviral therapy and combination prevention in Vietnam: towards elimination of HIV transmission. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2013;63(5):e142–9.
Tanser F, Barnighausen T, Grapsa E, Zaidi J, Newell M-L. High coverage of ART associated with decline in risk of HIV acquisition in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Science. 2013;339(6122):966.
Granich R, Gupta S, Hersh B, Williams B, Montaner J, Young B, et al. Trends in AIDS deaths, new infections and ART coverage in the top 30 countries with the highest AIDS mortality burden: 1990–2013. PLoS ONE. 2015;10(7):e0131353.
World Health Organization (WHO). Guideline on when to start antiretroviral therapy and on pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV. Geneva: WHO; 2015.
World Health Organization (WHO). Consolidated guidelines on HIV prevention, diagnosis, treatment and care for key populations : 2016 update. Geneva: WHO; 2016.
Meyer JP, Cepeda J, Wu J, Trestman RL, Altice FL, Springer SA. Optimization of human immunodeficiency virus treatment during incarceration: viral suppression at the prison gate. JAMA Intern Med. 2014;174(5):721–9.
Lucas KD, Eckert V, Behrends CN, Wheeler C, MacGowan RJ, Mohle-Boetani JC. Evaluation of routine HIV opt-out screening and continuum of care services following entry into eight prison reception Centers-California, 2012. Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2016;65(7):178–81.
Mpawa H, Kwekwesa A, Amberbir A, Garone D, Divala OH, Kawalazira G, et al. Virological outcomes of antiretroviral therapy in Zomba central prison, Malawi; a cross-sectional study. J Int AIDS Soc. 2017;20(1):21623.
Telisinghe L, Hippner P, Churchyard GJ, Gresak G, Grant AD, Charalambous S, et al. Outcomes of on-site antiretroviral therapy provision in a South African correctional facility. Int J STD AIDS. 2016;27(13):1153–61.
Uthman OA, Oladimeji O, Nduka C. Adherence to antiretroviral therapy among HIV-infected prisoners: a systematic review and meta-analysis. AIDS Care. 2017;29(4):489–97.
Ines SM, Moralejo L, Marcos M, Fuertes A, Luna G. Adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected inmates. Curr HIV Res. 2008;6(2):164–70.
Soto Blanco JM, Ruiz Pérez I, De Labry Lima AO, Castro Recio JM, Girela López E, Antón Basanta JJ. Adherence to antiretroviral treatment in prisons. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2005;21(8):683–8.
Culbert G. Violence and the perceived risks of taking antiretroviral therapy in US jails and prisons. Int J Prison Health. 2014;10(2):94–110.
Small W, Wood E, Betteridge G, Montaner J, Kerr T. The impact of incarceration upon adherence to HIV treatment among HIV-positive injection drug users: a qualitative study. AIDS Care. 2009;21(6):708–14.
Shalihu N, Pretorius L, van Dyk A, Vander Stoep A, Hagopian A. Namibian prisoners describe barriers to HIV antiretroviral therapy adherence. AIDS Care. 2014;26(8):968–75.
Roberson DW, White BL, Fogel CI. Factors influencing adherence to antiretroviral therapy for HIV-infected female inmates. J Assoc Nurses AIDS Care. 2009;20(1):50–61.
Mostashari F, Riley E, Selwyn PA, Altice FL. Acceptance and adherence with antiretroviral therapy among HIV-infected women in a correctional facility. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol. 1998;18(4):341–8.
Seyed Alinaghi SA, Farhoudi B, Mohraz M, Alipour A, Golrokhy R, Hosseini M, et al. Adherence to antiretroviral therapy and tuberculosis treatment in a prison of Tehran, Iran. Infect Disord Drug Targets. 2016;16(3):199–203.
Paparizos V, Kourkounti S, Leuow K, Georgoulas S, Kyriakis K, Antoniou C. Adherence to antiretroviral therapy among HIV-infected prisoners. Infez Med. 2013;21(3):189–93.
Fazel S, Baillargeon J. The health of prisoners. Lancet. 2011;377(9769):956–65.
White BL, Wohl DA, Hays RD, Golin CE, Liu H, Kiziah CN, et al. A pilot study of health beliefs and attitudes concerning measures of antiretroviral adherence among prisoners receiving directly observed antiretroviral therapy. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2006;20(6):408–17.
Rodrguez-Daz CE, Rivera-Negrn RM, Clatts MC, Myers JJ. Health care practices and associated service needs in a sample of HIV-positive incarcerated men in puerto rico: implications for retention in care. J Int Assoc Provid AIDS Care. 2014;13(6):492–6.
Farhoudi B, Alipour A, Ghodrati S, Seyedalinaghi S, Zanganeh M, Mohraz M. Barriers to adherence to antiretroviral treatment among inmates of a prison in Tehran, Iran: a qualitative study. Arch Clin Infect Dis. 2018. https://doi.org/10.5812/archcid.57911.
Uthman OA, Oladimeji O, Nduka C. Adherence to antiretroviral therapy among HIV-infected prisoners: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Aids Care-Psychol Socio-Med Aspects Aids/Hiv. 2017;29(4):489–97.
Meyer JP, Cepeda J, Taxman FS, Altice FL. Sex-related disparities in criminal justice and HIV treatment outcomes: a retrospective cohort study of HIV-infected inmates. Am J Public Health. 2015;105(9):1901–10.
Todrys KW, Amon JJ, Malembeka G, Clayton M. Imprisoned and imperiled: access to HIV and TB prevention and treatment, and denial of human rights, in Zambian prisons. J Int AIDS Soc. 2011;14:8.
Federal Democratice Republic of Ethiopia Ministry of Health (FMH). National guideline for comprehensive HIV prevention, care and treatment. Addis Ababa: FMH; 2017.
Fuge TG, Tsourtos G, Miller ER. Various structural factors influenced early antiretroviral therapy initiation amongst HIV infected prisoners: a qualitative exploration in South Ethiopia. BMC Public Health. 2021;21(1):1463.
Kelsey JL. Methods in observational epidemiology. 2nd ed. Thompson WD, Evans AS, editors. New York, US: Oxford University Press; 1986. 366 p.
Tegegne AS, Ndlovu P, Zewotir T. Factors affecting first month adherence due to antiretroviral therapy among HIV-positive adults at Felege Hiwot Teaching and Specialized Hospital, north-western Ethiopia; a prospective study. BMC Infect Dis. 2018;18(1):83.
Bezabhe WM, Chalmers L, Bereznicki LR, Gee P, Peterson GM. Antiretroviral adherence and treatment outcomes among adult Ethiopian patients. AIDS Care. 2016;28(8):1018–22.
Boateng G, Neilands T, Frongillo E, Melgar-Quinonez H, Young S. Best practices for developing and validating scales for health, social, and behavioral research: a primer. Front Public Health. 2018;6:149.
Tavakol M, Dennick R. Making sense of Cronbach’s alpha. Int J Med Educ. 2011;2:53.
Sherbourne CD, Stewart AL. The MOS social support survey. Soc Sci Med. 1991;32(6):705–14.
Berger BE, Ferrans CE, Lashley FR. Measuring stigma in people with HIV: psychometric assessment of the HIV stigma scale. Res Nurs Health. 2001;24(6):518–29.
Reinius M, Wettergren L, Wiklander M, Svedhem V, Ekstrom A, Eriksson L. Development of a 12-item short version of the HIV stigma scale. Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2017;15(1):115.
Kessler RC, Andrews G, Colpe LJ, Hiripi E, Mroczek DK, Normand SLT, et al. Short screening scales to monitor population prevalences and trends in non-specific psychological distress. Psychol Med. 2002;32(6):959–76.
Henegar C, Westreich D, Maskew M, Brookhart M, Miller W, Majuba P, et al. Comparison of pharmacy-based measures of adherence to antiretroviral therapy as predictors of virological failure. AIDS Behav. 2015;19(4):612–8.
World Health Organization (WHO). Consolidated guidelines on the use of antiretroviral drugs for treating and preventing HIV infection: recommendations for a public health approach. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO; 2013.
Reynolds RN, Sun NJ, Nagaraja LH, Gifford WA, Wu AA, Chesney AM. Optimizing measurement of self-reported adherence with the ACTG adherence questionnaire: a cross-protocol analysis. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2007;46(4):402–9.
Musumari P, Wouters E, Kayembe P, Kiumbu Nzita M, Mbikayi S, Suguimoto S, et al. Food insecurity is associated with increased risk of non-adherence to antiretroviral therapy among HIV-infected adults in the Democratic Republic of Congo: a cross-sectional study. PLoS ONE. 2014;9(1):e85327.
Masa R, Chowa G, Nyirenda V. Barriers and facilitators of antiretroviral therapy adherence in rural Eastern province, Zambia: the role of household economic status. Afr J AIDS Res. 2017;16(2):91–9.
De Boer MI, Prins MJ, Sprangers AGM, Nieuwkerk TP. Using different calculations of pharmacy refill adherence to predict virological failure among HIV-infected patients. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2010;55(5):635–40.
World Health Organization (WHO). Adherence to long-term therapies: evidence for action. Human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Geneva: WHO; 2003.
StataCorp. Stata Statistical Software. Release. 16th ed. College Station, TX: StataCorp LLC.; 2019.
Ugoni A, Walker B. The Chi square test: an introduction. Comsig Rev. 1995;4(3):61–4.
Arora PN. Biostatistics. Rev. ed. Malhan PK, editor. Mumbai, India: Himalaya Pub. House; 2010.
Leslie EP, Jeffrey MW. Econometric Methods for fractional response variables with an application to 401 (K) plan participation rates. J Appl Economet. 1996;11(6):619–32.
Hosmer DW. Applied logistic regression. 3rd ed. Lemeshow S, Sturdivant RX, editors. Hoboken, N.J.: Wiley; 2013. 528p.
Fahrmeir L, Kneib T, Lang S, Marx B. Regression: models, methods and applications. Heidelberg, Berlin: Springer; 2013. p. 698.
Raftery AE. Bayesian model selection in social research. Sociol Methodol. 1995;25:111–63.
Akaike H. Information theory and an extension of the maximum likelihood principle. In: Parzen E, Tanabe K, Kitagawa G, editors. Selected papers of Hirotugu Akaike. New York: Springer; 1998. p. 199–213.
Li C. Little’s test of missing completely at random. Stand Genomic Sci. 2018;13(4):795–809.
Eddings W, Marchenko Y. Diagnostics for multiple imputation in stata. Stand Genomic Sci. 2018;12(3):353–67.
Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS). Understanding fast-track: accelerating actions to end the AIDS epidemic by 2030. Geneva: UNAIDS; 2015.
Bijker R, Jiamsakul A, Kityo C, Kiertiburanakul S, Siwale M, Phanuphak P, et al. Adherence to antiretroviral therapy for HIV in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia: a comparative analysis of two regional cohorts. J Int AIDS Soc. 2017;20(1):21218.
Semvua SK, Orrell C, Mmbaga BT, Semvua HH, Bartlett JA, Boulle AA. Predictors of non-adherence to antiretroviral therapy among HIV infected patients in northern Tanzania. PLoS ONE. 2017;12(12):e0189460.
Negash E, Wakgari N, Wasie B, Edris M, Bekele G. Adherence to antiretroviral therapy and its associated factors among HIV positive patients in Nekemte public health institutions, West Ethiopia. HIV AIDS Rev. 2016;15(3):116–21.
Davies NE, Karstaedt AS. Antiretroviral outcomes in South African prisoners: a retrospective cohort analysis. PLoS ONE. 2012;7(3):e33309.
Assefa Y, Gilks CF, Lynen L, Williams O, Hill PS, Tolera T, et al. Performance of the antiretroviral treatment program in Ethiopia 2005–2015: strengths and weaknesses toward ending AIDS. Int J Infect Dis. 2017;60(C):70–6.
Ford N, Darder M, Spelman T, Maclean E, Mills E, Boulle A. Early adherence to antiretroviral medication as a predictor of long-term HIV virological suppression: five-year follow up of an observational cohort (Adherence and Viral Load). PLoS ONE. 2010;5(5):e10460.
Wood SE, Hogg RR, Yip VB, Harrigan SGP, O’Shaughnessy SGM, Montaner SGJ. The impact of adherence on CD4 cell count responses among HIV-infected patients. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2004;35(3):261–8.
Fong OW, Ho CF, Fung LY, Lee FK, Tse WH, Yuen CY, et al. Determinants of adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in Chinese HIV/AIDS patients. HIV Med. 2003;4(2):133–8.
Chakrapani V, Kamei R, Kipgen H, Kh JK. Access to harm reduction and HIV-related treatment services inside Indian prisons: experiences of formerly incarcerated injecting drug users. Int J Prison Health. 2013;9(2):82–91.
World Health Organization (WHO)-Regional office for Europe. Prisons and health. Copenhagen: WHO; 2014.
United Nations Office for Drugs and Crime (UNODC). HIV prevention, treatment and care in prisons and other closed settings: a comprehensive package of interventions. Vienna: UNODC; 2013.
Watt MH, Maman S, Golin CE, Earp JA, Eng E, Bangdiwala SI, et al. Factors associated with self-reported adherence to antiretroviral therapy in a Tanzanian setting. AIDS Care. 2010;22(3):381–9.
Croome N, Ahluwalia M, Hughes LD, Abas M. Patient-reported barriers and facilitators to antiretroviral adherence in sub-Saharan Africa. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2017;31(7):995–1007.
Heestermans T, Browne JL, Aitken SC, Vervoort SC, Klipstein-Grobusch K. Determinants of adherence to antiretroviral therapy among HIV-positive adults in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review. BMJ Glob Health. 2016;1(4):e000125-e.
United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). Policy brief: HIV testing and counselling in prisons and other closed settings. Vienna: UNODC; 2009.
Magidson JF, Saal W, Nel A, Remmert JE, Kagee A. Relationship between depressive symptoms, alcohol use, and antiretroviral therapy adherence among HIV-infected, clinic-attending patients in South Africa. J Health Psychol. 2017;22(11):1426–33.
Wagner GJ, Slaughter M, Ghosh-Dastidar B. Depression at treatment initiation predicts HIV antiretroviral adherence in Uganda. J Int Assoc Provid AIDS Care. 2017;16(1):91–7.
Langebeek N, Gisolf EH, Reiss P, Vervoort SC, Hafsteinsdttir TB, Richter C, et al. Predictors and correlates of adherence to combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) for chronic HIV infection: a meta-analysis. BMC Med. 2014;12(1):142.
Bing EG, Burnam MA, Longshore D, Fleishman JA, Sherbourne CD, London AS, et al. Psychiatric disorders and drug use among human immunodeficiency virus-infected adults in the united states. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2001;58(8):721–8.
Altice FL, Mostashari F, Friedland GH. Trust and the acceptance of and adherence to antiretroviral therapy. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2001;28(1):47–58.
Hardy H, Kumar V, Doros G, Farmer E, Drainoni M-L, Rybin D, et al. Randomized controlled trial of a personalized cellular phone reminder system to enhance adherence to antiretroviral therapy. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2011;25(3):153–61.
Xuan Tran B, Thanh Nguyen L, Hoang Nguyen N, Van Hoang Q. Determinants of antiretroviral treatment adherence among HIV/AIDS patients: a multisite study. Glob Health Action. 2013;6(1):19570.
Kunutsor S, Walley J, Katabira E, Muchuro S, Balidawa H, Namagala E, et al. Using mobile phones to improve clinic attendance amongst an antiretroviral treatment cohort in Rural Uganda: a cross-sectional and prospective study. AIDS Behav. 2010;14(6):1347–52.
Boussari O, Subtil F, Genolini C, Bastard M, Iwaz J, Fonton N, et al. Impact of variability in adherence to HIV antiretroviral therapy on the immunovirological response and mortality. BMC Med Res Methodol. 2015;15:10.
Haberer JE, Musinguzi N, Boum Y 2nd, Siedner MJ, Mocello AR, Hunt PW, et al. Duration of antiretroviral therapy adherence interruption is associated with risk of virologic rebound as determined by real-time adherence monitoring in Rural Uganda. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2015;70(4):386–92.
Mekuria LA, Nieuwkerk PT, Yalew AW, Sprangers MA, Prins JM. High level of virological suppression among HIV-infected adults receiving combination antiretroviral therapy in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Antivir Ther. 2016;21(5):385–96.
Anoje C, Agu K, Oladele E, Badru T, Adedokun O, Oqua D, et al. Adherence to on-time ART drug pick-up and its association with CD4 changes and clinical outcomes amongst HIV infected adults on first-line antiretroviral therapy in Nigerian hospitals. AIDS Behav. 2017;21(2):386–92.
Fonsah JY, Njamnshi AK, Kouanfack C, Qiu F, Njamnshi DM, Tagny CT, et al. Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) in yaounde-cameroon: association with opportunistic infections, depression, ART Regimen and side effects. PLoS ONE. 2017;12(1):e0170893.
Gebrezgabher BB, Kebede Y, Kindie M, Tetemke D, Abay M, Gelaw YA. Determinants to antiretroviral treatment non-adherence among adult HIV/AIDS patients in northern Ethiopia. AIDS Res Ther. 2017;14:16.
Denison JA, Koole O, Tsui S, Menten J, Torpey K, van Praag E, et al. Incomplete adherence among treatment-experienced adults on antiretroviral therapy in Tanzania, Uganda and Zambia. AIDS (London, England). 2015;29(3):361–71.
Letta S, Demissie A, Oljira L, Dessie Y. Factors associated with adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) among adult people living with HIV and attending their clinical care, Eastern Ethiopia. BMC Int Health Hum Rights. 2015;15:33.
Fuge TG, Tsourtos G, Miller ER. A systematic review and meta-analyses on initiation, adherence and outcomes of antiretroviral therapy in incarcerated people. PLoS ONE. 2020;15(5):e0233355.
United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF). Young people and HIV/AIDS: opportunity in crisis Geneva. Switzerland: UNICEF; 2002.
Fuge TG, Ayanto SY. Prevalence of smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis and associated risk factors among prisoners in Hadiya Zone prison, Southern Ethiopia. BMC Res Notes. 2016;9(1):201.
Blankenship KM, Del Rio Gonzalez AM, Keene DE, Groves AK, Rosenberg AP. Mass incarceration, race inequality, and health: expanding concepts and assessing impacts on well-being. Soc Sci Med. 2018;215:45–52.
Meyer JP, Cepeda J, Taxman FS, Altice FL. Sex-related disparities in criminal justice and HIV treatment outcomes: a retrospective cohort study of HIV-infected inmates. Am J Public Health 2015; 105(9): 1901–1910. Date of Publication: 01 Sep 2015.; 2015.
Govender K, Beckett SE, George G, Lewis L, Cawood C, Khanyile D, et al. Factors associated with HIV in younger and older adult men in South Africa: findings from a cross-sectional survey. BMJ Open. 2019;9(12):e031667.
Hoenigl M, Chaillon A, Morris SR, Little SJ. HIV infection rates and risk behavior among young men undergoing community-based testing in San Diego. Sci Rep. 2016;6(1):25927.
Kidia K, Machando D, Bere T, Macpherson K, Nyamayaro P, Potter L, et al. “I was thinking too much”: experiences of HIV-positive adults with common mental disorders and poor adherence to antiretroviral therapy in Zimbabwe. Trop Med Int Health. 2015;20(7):903–13.
Dewing S, Mathews C, Lurie M, Kagee A, Padayachee T, Lombard C. Predictors of poor adherence among people on antiretroviral treatment in Cape Town, South Africa: a case-control study. AIDS Care. 2015;27(3):342–9.
Kapiamba G, Masango T, Mphuthi D. Antiretroviral adherence and virological outcomes in HIV-positive patients in Ugu district, KwaZulu-Natal province. Afr J AIDS Res. 2016;15(3):195–201.
Williams A, Amico K, Bova C, Womack J. A proposal for quality standards for measuring medication adherence in research. AIDS Behav. 2013;17(1):284–97.
Zack B. HIV prevention: behavioral interventions in correctional settings. In: Greifinger RB, editor. Public Health Behind bars; from prisons to communities. New York: Springer; 2007. p. 156–73.
Stephenson BL, Wohl DA, Golin CE, Tien H-C, Stewart P, Kaplan AH. Effect of release from prison and re-incarceration on the viral loads of HIV-infected individuals. Public Health Rep. 2005;120(1):84–8.
Meyer JP, Cepeda J, Springer SA, Wu J, Trestman RL, Altice FL. HIV in people reincarcerated in Connecticut prisons and jails: an observational cohort study. Lancet HIV 2014; 1(2): e77–e84. Date of Publication: 2014.; 2014.