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Table 2 Univariable and multivariable logistic regression of viral non-suppression in 647 PLHIV on ART in Guatemala

From: Factors associated with viremia in people living with HIV on antiretroviral therapy in Guatemala

Variable Univariable Multivariable
aOR 95% CI p-value aOR 95% CI p-value
Smoking 2.06 1.14–3.73 0.017 1.73 0.83–3.60 0.141
Excessive alcohol consumption 1.95 1.03–3.69 0.041 2.56 1.18–5.54 0.017
Perceived difficulty attending healthcare 2.09 1.33–3.29 0.001 2.07 1.25–3.42 0.005
No comorbidities 1.63 1.04–2.56 0.034 1.72 1.04–2.84 0.033
Past AIDS defining illness 2.14 1.36–3.36 0.001 1.23 0.72–2.11 0.450
Low CD4 count at diagnosis 2.55 1.54–4.22 0.000 2.34 1.30–4.20 0.004
Treatment interruption ≥ seven days 4.70 2.41–9.18 0.000 4.51 2.13–9.58 0.000
Multiple prior ART regimens 3.69 2.24–6.09 0.000 2.82 1.59–4.99 0.000
Multiple-daily dosing 2.43 1.53–3.86 0.000 1.59 0.92–2.74 0.095
Sexual orientation
 MSM 1.00   0.036 1.00   0.064
 Bisexual 3.95 1.4–11.11 0.009 4.04 1.33–12.3 0.014
 Heterosexual 2.40 1.07–5.38 0.033 1.61 0.66–3.91 0.298
Age 50 and below 1.11 0.62–1.98 0.723    
Male 1.23 0.78–1.93 0.381    
Not indigenous ethnicity 1.26 0.65–2.47 0.496    
Primary education or less 1.39 0.88–2.19 0.157    
Individual income ≤ CBAa 2.00 0.94–4.27 0.074    
Home owner 1.27 0.78–2.05 0.334    
Lack of access to basic utilities 1.32 0.69–2.50 0.400    
Prior illicit drug use 1.58 0.83–3.02 0.168    
Travel time to healthcare > 1 h 1.27 0.79–2.04 0.330    
Borrows money for transport to care 1.20 0.75–1.92 0.456    
Travel cost ≥ $2.6 roundtripb 1.15 0.74–1.81 0.534    
Integrase inhibitor-based regimen 1.47 0.93–2.32 0.095    
  1. MSM men who have sex with men, ART antiretroviral therapy, aOR adjusted odds ratio, CI confidence interval
  2. Significant variables (p < 0.05) in univariable analysis were entered into multivariable analysis
  3. aMonthly income ≤ Canasta Básica Alimentaria, the cost to feed an average Guatemalan household per month
  4. b$2.6 was the median cost of transport reported in the cohort