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Table 1 Characteristics of 664 virally suppressed and non-suppressed PLHIV on ART in Guatemala

From: Factors associated with viremia in people living with HIV on antiretroviral therapy in Guatemala

Variable Total (664) Viral Suppression (576) Viral Non-suppression (88) p-valuea
Age in years (IQR) 39 [32, 48] 40 [33, 48] 37.5 [34.5,44.5] 0.512
Male n (%) 356 (53.6%) 305 (53%) 51 (58%) 0.381
Sexual orientation n (%) 653 (98.3%)    0.016
 MSM 112 (16.9%) 105 (18%) 7 (8%)
 Bisexual 48 (7.2%) 38 (7%) 10 (11%)
 Heterosexual 493 (74.2%) 425 (74%) 68 (77%)
Non-indigenous ethnicity n (%) 565 (85.1%) 488 (85%) 77 (88%) 0.496
Years of education (IQR) 6 [3, 11] 7 [3, 11] 6 [4, 9] 0.164
Individual monthly incomeb (IQR) 150 [0.375] 182 [0.389] 51 [0.318] 0.058
Working status 441 (66.4%) 391 (67.0%) 50 (56.8%) 0.052
Home owner n (%) 422 (63.6%) 362 (63%) 60 (68%) 0.333
Lack of access to basic utilities n (%) 80 (12.0%) 67 (12%) 13 (15%) 0.399
Smoking n (%) 77 (11.6%) 60 (10%) 17 (19%) 0.015
Excessive alcohol consumption n (%) 65 (9.8%) 51 (9%) 14 (16%) 0.038
Prior illicit drug use n (%) 70 (10.5%) 57 (10%) 13 (15%) 0.165
Travel time to healthcare in minutes (IQR) 90 [60, 150] 90 [45,150] 90 [60,180] 0.395
Borrows money for transport to care n (%) 211 (31.8%) 180 (31%) 31 (35%) 0.455
Round-trip travel costb (IQR) 2.5 [1.25, 7.5] 2.27 [1.3,6.49] 2.66 [1.04,8.04] 0.741
Perceived difficulty attending healthcare n (%) 258 (38.9%) 210 (37%) 48 (55%) 0.001
Participants with comorbidities n (%) 408 (61.4%) 363 (63%) 45 (51%)  
 Dyslipidemia 298 (44.9%) 293 (44%) 5 (5%)  
 Hypertension 59 (8.9%) 53 (9%) 6 (7%) 0.030
 Diabetes 36 (5.4%) 32 (5.6%) 4 (4.5%)  
Past AIDS-defining illness n (%) 221 (33.3%) 178 (31%) 43 (49%) 0.001
 Current tuberculosis diagnosis 3 (0.5%) 1 (0.2%) 2 (2.3%)  
CD4 count at diagnosis (IQR) 174 [57, 341] 178 [55,346] 58 [24.5,145.5] 0.000
Treatment interruptions ≥ seven days n (%) 42 (6.3%) 26 (5%) 16 (18%) 0.000
Multiple prior ART regimens n (%) 105 (15.8%) 74 (13%) 31 (35%) 0.000
Multiple-daily dosing n (%) 181 (27.2%) 142 (25%) 39 (44%) 0.001
Integrase inhibitor-based regimen n (%) 234 (35.2%) 196 (34%) 38 (43%) 0.094
  1. MSM, men who have sex with men; ART, antiretroviral therapy; IQR, interquartile range
  2. aComparisons were calculated with Chi-squared test for categorical variables and Mann–Whitney U for continuous variables bIn dollars