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Table 1 Study population characteristics, overall and by testing history

From: Factors associated with testing for HIV and hepatitis C among behaviorally vulnerable men in Germany: a cross-sectional analysis upon enrollment into an observational cohort

  Overall (n = 1017) Recent HIV testing Recent HCV testing
No HIV test for > 6 months (n = 96) Tested for HIV < 6 months ago (n = 921) p No HCV test for > 6 months (n = 488) Tested for HCV < 6 months ago (n = 513) p
Age (years) 0.008    0.16
 < 25 96 (9.4%) 16 (16.7%) 80 (8.7%)   51 (10.5%) 45 (8.8%)  
 25–35 496 (48.8%) 51 (53.1%) 445 (48.3%)   223 (45.7%) 265 (51.7%)  
 > 35 425 (41.8%) 29 (30.2%) 396 (43.0%)   214 (43.9%) 203 (39.6%)  
Gender identity 0.075    0.17
 Cisgender man 1002 (98.5%) 93 (96.9%) 909 (98.7%)   484 (99.2%) 503 (98.1%)  
 Transgender man 1 (0.1%) 0 (0.0%) 1 (0.1%)   0 (0.0%) 1 (0.2%)  
 Transgender woman 1 (0.1%) 0 (0.0%) 1 (0.1%)   1 (0.2%) 0 (0.0%)  
 Non-binary 5 (0.5%) 0 (0.0%) 5 (0.5%)   0 (0.0%) 5 (1.0%)  
 Gender queer 1 (0.1%) 0 (0.0%) 1 (0.1%)   0 (0.0%) 1 (0.2%)  
 Missing/unknown 7 (0.7%) 3 (0.3%) 4 (0.4%)   3 (0.6%) 3 (0.6%)  
Sexual orientation < 0.001    0.037
 Homosexual 936 (92.0%) 86 (89.6%) 850 (92.3%)   447 (91.6%) 475 (92.6%)  
 Bisexual 48 (4.7%) 6 (6.3%) 42 (4.6%)   28 (5.7%) 19 (3.7%)  
 Heterosexual 1 (0.1%) 1 (1.0%) 0 (0.0%)   1 (0.2%) 0 (0.0%)  
 Other or no label 23 (2.3) 0 (0.0%) 23 (2.5%)   6 (1.2%) 17 (3.3%)  
 Missing/unknown 9 (0.9%) 3 (3.1%) 6 (0.7%)   6 (1.2%) 2 (0.4%)  
Education level < 0.001    0.60
 Less than secondary 199 (19.6%) 25 (26.0%) 174 (18.9%)   102 (20.9%) 94 (18.3%)  
 Secondary school 283 (27.8%) 40 (41.7%) 243 (26.4%)   137 (28.1%) 143 (27.9%)  
 Undergraduate 171 (16.8%) 11 (11.5%) 160 (17.4%)   85 (17.4%) 85 (16.6%)  
 Master’s or doctorate 364 (35.8%) 20 (20.8%) 344 (37.4%)   164 (33.6%) 191 (37.2%)  
Marital status 0.71    0.024
 Single/never married 624 (61.4%) 63 (65.6%) 561 (60.9%)   282 (57.8%) 334 (65.1%)  
 Married 120 (11.8%) 8 (8.3%) 112 (12.2%)   57 (11.7%) 60 (11.7%)  
 Cohabitating 195 (19.2%) 17 (17.3%) 178 (19.3%)   104 (21.3%) 86 (16.8%)  
 Separated/widowed 73 (7.2%) 7 (7.3%) 66 (7.2%)   40 (8.2%) 33 (6.4%)  
 Other/unknown 5 (0.5%) 1 (1.0%) 4 (0.4%)   5 (1.0%) 0 (0.0%)  
Self-perceived HIV riska 0.001    0.32
 None/small 438 (43.1%) 36 (37.5%) 402 (43.6%)   197 (40.4%) 235 (45.8%)  
 Some 357 (35.1%) 37 (38.5%) 320 (34.7%)   184 (37.7%) 170 (33.1%)  
 Large/very large 217 (21.3%) 20 (20.8%) 197 (21.4%)   104 (21.3%) 106 (20.7%)  
 Missing/unknown 5 (0.5%) 3 (3.1%) 2 (0.2%)   3 (0.6%) 2 (0.4%)  
Illicit drug use in lifetime 0.009     < 0.001
 No 327 (32.2%) 34 (35.4%) 293 (31.8%)   171 (35.0%) 155 (30.2%)  
 Yes 668 (65.7%) 56 (58.3%) 612 (66.4%)   297 (60.9%) 356 (69.4%)  
 Missing/unknown 22 (2.2%) 6 (6.3%) 16 (1.7%)   20 (4.1%) 2 (0.4%)  
Binge drinking in last yearb 0.074    0.71
 No 608 (59.8%) 57 (59.4%) 551 (59.8%)   291 (59.6%) 309 (60.2%)  
 Yes 345 (33.9%) 28 (29.2%) 317 (34.4%)   169 (34.6%) 169 (32.9%)  
 Missing/unknown 64 (6.3%) 11 (11.5%) 53 (5.8%)   28 (5.7%) 35 (6.8%)  
Hepatitis B status 0.051    0.005
 Susceptible 149 (14.7%) 22 (22.9%) 127 (13.8%)   89 (18.2%) 59 (11.5%)  
 Immune 866 (85.2%) 74 (77.1%) 792 (86.0%)   399 (81.8%) 452 (88.1%)  
 Infected 2 (0.2%) 0 (0.0%) 2 (0.2%)   0 (0.0%) 2 (0.4%)  
  1. Participant characteristics were assessed at study screening and enrollment visits. All data are presented as n (column percentage). p-values were calculated using Pearson’s Chi-squared test and significant results (p < 0.05) are shown in bold. Sixteen participants known to be living with HIV were not included in the evaluation of recent HCV testing, since HCV diagnostic testing would not routinely be indicated for such individuals
  2. aSelf-perceived HIV risk was assessed with the question, “Thinking about the sex you had in the past 12 months, to what extent would you consider yourself at risk of getting HIV?” with answers provided via a 5-point Liekert scale from “no risk” to “very large risk.”
  3. bBinge drinking was defined as having six or more drinks during one occasion once or more per month during the past year
  4. cHepatitis B status was categorized as “susceptible” if all surface antigen, surface antibody, and core antibody were all non-reactive; “immune” if only the surface antibody or core antibody was reactive; and “infected” if the surface antigen was detectable