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Table 3 Univariate and Multivariate analysis of predictors of LTFU

From: Predictors of loss to follow-up in art experienced patients in Nigeria: a 13 year review (2004–2017)

  Univariate (COR) Multivariate (AOR) n = 156,124
  OR [95% CI] p OR [95%CI] p
Sex
 Female 1 [Ref]   1 [Ref]  
 Male 1.16 [1.136–1.180] < 0.001 Omitted  
Female status
 Breastfeeding 1 [Ref]   1 [Ref]  
 Pregnant 2.11 [1.792–2.477] < 0.001 1.83 [1.546–2.171] < 0.001
 Not pregnant 3.76 [3.238–4.354] < 0.001 4.55 [3.893–5.307] < 0.001
Month of ARV refill
 1 1 [Ref]   1 [Ref]  
 2 0.37 [0.361–0.377] < 0.001 0.59 [0.573–0.608] < 0.001
 ≥ 3 0.68 [0.656–0.696] < 0.001 1.32 [1.260–1.373] < 0.001
Region
 Northa 1 [Ref]   1 [Ref]  
 Southb 0.86 [0.843–0.880] < 0.001 0.69 [0.671–0.712] < 0.001
Viral load indication
 Routine 1 [Ref]   1 [Ref]  
 Targeted 0.57 [0.526–0.618] < 0.001 0.44 [0.393–0.487] < 0.001
 Missing 6.06 [5.870–6.256] < 0.001 3.08 [1.247–7.616] 0.015
Regimen at ART start
 Adult 1st line 1 [Ref]   1 [Ref]  
 Adult 2nd line 0.70 [0.666–0.734] < 0.001 1.23 [1.146–1.312] < 0.001
 Paeds 1st line 0.87 [0.830–0.909] < 0.001 1.70 [1.376–2.112] < 0.001
 Paeds 2nd line 0.68 [0.530–0.869] = 0.002 1.16 [0.707–1.888] 0.564
Viral result
 Suppressed 1 [Ref]   1 [Ref]  
 Unsuppressed 2.67 [2.516–2.828] < 0.001 4.52 [4.109–4.961] < 0.001
Duration of ART (month)
 ≤ 6 1 [Ref]   1 [Ref]  
 7–12 0.33 [0.324–0.346] < 0.001 0.423 [0.407–0.443] < 0.001
 13–24 0.30 [0.294–0.313] < 0.001 0.410 [0.394–0.426] < 0.001
 25+ 0.19 [0.184–0.192] < 0.001 0.246 [0.238–0.253] < 0.001
Age at LTFU (years)
 1–9 1 [Ref]   1 [Ref] < 0.001
 10–14 1.27 [1.156–1.390] < 0.001 2.990 [2.557–3.496] < 0.001
 15–19 1.40 [1.282–1.537] < 0.001 13.749 [10.458–18.077] < 0.001
 20–24 1.23 [1.148–1.322] < 0.001 54.948 [40.407–74.721] < 0.001
 25–49 1.36 [1.282–1.422] < 0.001 241.574 [176.541–330.565] < 0.001
 50–64 1.44 [1.348–1.528] < 0.001 487.771 [354.269–671.582] < 0.001
 65+ 1.81 [1.666–1.967] < 0.001 1622.844 [1142.974–2304.185] < 0.001
Northern regions
 North centralc 1 [Ref]   1 [Ref]  
 North westd 0.969 [0.944–0.995] = 0.019 Omitted  
  1. [Ref], reference; OR, odds ratio; CI, confidence interval; p, p value which is in italics if significant at < 0.05
  2. aNorth also referred as Northern region: Benue, FCT, Kaduna, Kano, Katsina and Nassarawa
  3. bSouth also referred as Southern region: Delta, Ondo, Ogun, Osun and Ekiti
  4. cNorth central: Benue, FCT and Nassarawa
  5. dNorth west: Kano, Kaduna and Katsina