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Table 2 Unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios examining association of retentiona in care with demographic and clinical characteristics in HIV-positive patientsb receiving care at UAB, 2007–2013 (N = 743)

From: Mental health service utilization is associated with retention in care among persons living with HIV at a university-affiliated HIV clinic

Characteristic Univariate analysisc Multivariable analysisc,d
Unadjusted OR (95% CI) p Adjusted OR (95% CI) p
Age (years)e     
 < 30l 1.0 1.0
 30–45 0.9 (0.6, 1.3) 0.51 0.9 (0.6, 1.4) 0.69
 > 45 1.3 (0.7, 2.3) 0.43 1.6 (0.8, 3.2) 0.14
Race     
 Whitel 1.0 1.0
 Black 0.9 (0.6, 1.3) 0.55 1.3 (0.8, 2.2) 0.27
 Other/unk 0.6 (0.2, 1.5) 0.24 0.9 (0.3, 2.5) 0.83
Sex     
 Femalel 1.0 1.0
 Male 0.9 (0.6, 1.6) 0.84 0.7 (0.4, 1.4) 0.32
Transmission risk     
 Heterosexuall 1.0 1.0
 IVDU 1.2 (0.5, 2.8) 0.75 1.6 (0.6, 4.5) 0.31
 MSM 1.3 (0.9, 2.1) 0.20 1.5 (0.9, 2.7) 0.13
 Unknown 0.8 (0.4, 1.6) 0.54 1.1 (0.5, 2.4) 0.78
Insurancee     
 Privatel 1.0 1.0
 Public 0.3 (0.2, 0.6) < 0.001 0.3 (0.1, 0.6) < 0.001
 Uninsured/unknown 0.5 (0.3, 0.8) 0.002 0.4 (0.3, 0.7) 0.001
CD4 count, cells/uLe     
 < 200 1.2 (0.8, 1.9) 0.38
 ≥ 200l 1.0   
Viral Loade     
 < 200 0.9 (0.2, 3.1) 0.84
 ≥ 200l 1.0   
Depressione,f     
 Yes 1.0 (0.6, 1.5) 0.83
 Nol 1.0   
Drug usee,g     
 Current 0.7 (0.4, 1.2) 0.17
 Past/neverl 1.0   
At risk alcohol usee,h,i     
 Yes 0.8 (0.5, 1.2) 0.34
 No/lowl 1.0   
Number of MHCse,j     
 0l 1.0 1.0
 1 1.2 (0.9, 1.9) 0.36 1.2 (0.7, 1.9) 0.50
 2 0.8 (0.5, 1.4) 0.51 0.7 (0.4, 1.1) 0.13
 3 0.5 (0.2, 1.1) 0.09 0.3 (0.1, 0.7) 0.01
Mental healthcare utilizationk     
 0l 1.00   1.0
 1–2 1.3 (0.7, 2.3) 0.43 1.6 (0.8, 3.0) 0.15
 ≥ 3 4.4 (1.6, 12.2) 0.01 6.8 (2.3, 20.4) <0.001
  1. CI confidence Interval, IDU intravenous drug use, MHC mental health co-morbidities, MSM men who have sex with men, OR odds Ratio, SD standard deviation, UAB University of Alabama at Birmingham (Birmingham, AL, USA)
  2. Italic type face are statistically significant at 0.05 level
  3. aDefinition: at least two primary care appointments being attended within a period of 12 months but separated by at least 90 days
  4. bTreatment naïve and newly engaged in care
  5. cLogistic regression method
  6. dModel performance: C-statistics = 0.677; Max-rescaled r-square = 9.1%; Hosmer–Lemeshow test p value = 0.62
  7. eMeasured at baseline (time of clinic enrollment interview)
  8. fPatient Health Questionnaire-9
  9. gAlcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test
  10. hAlcohol Use Disorder Identification Test-Consumption Test
  11. iDrug use excludes marijuana
  12. jMeasured as total count of depression, drug use, and alcohol use
  13. kMeasured within 12 months
  14. lReference category