Skip to main content

Table 3 The table below presents odds ratios (OR) or adjusted odds ratios (aOR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for failure or resistance given a 10% increase in the adherence variable (or a 1 log increase in EFV concentration) in each logistic regression model

From: Comparison of six methods to estimate adherence in an ART-naïve cohort in a resource-poor setting: which best predicts virological and resistance outcomes?

Adherence measure Univariate model Multivariable model
OR (95% CI) p value aOR (95% CI) p value
Virological failure (>40 copies/ml) at week 48
 EAMDa 0.87 (0.82–0.94) <0.001 0.89 (0.82–0.95) 0.001
 PR-average 0.78 (0.70–0.88) <0.001 0.78 (0.69–0.87) <0.001
 PR-gaps 0.69 (0.56–0.82) <0.001 0.68 (0.56–0.82) <0.001
 CPC 0.89 (0.82–0.96) 0.004 0.88 (0.80–0.96) 0.004
 Log10EFV 0.40 (0.16–1.03) 0.059 0.52 (0.19–1.37) 0.184
 SR 0.98 (0.89–1.08) 0.698 0.98 (0.88–1.09) 0.720
Resistance (presence of ≥1 major mutation) at week 48
 EAMD 0.74 (0.64–0.87) <0.001 0.68 (0.53–0.88) 0.003
 PR-average 0.77 (0.69–0.87) <0.001 0.77 (0.66–0.89) <0.001
 PR-gaps 0.74 (0.65–0.85) <0.001 0.77 (0.66–0.89) 0.001
 CPC 0.85 (0.77–0.94) 0.002 0.82 (0.69–0.98) 0.031
 Log10EFV 0.14 (0.04–0.45) 0.001 0.14 (0.02–0.78) 0.025
 SR 0.92 (0.83–1.02) 0.102 0.92 (0.78–1.08) 0.316
Virological failure (>400 copies/ml) at week 16
 EAMD 0.93 (0.86–1.01) 0.085 0.96 (0.87–1.06) 0.459
 PR-average 0.68 (0.55–0.83) <0.001 0.66 (0.50–0.73) 0.004
 PR-gaps 0.64 (0.51–0.82) <0.001 0.64 (0.47–0.88) 0.006
 CPC 0.89 (0.78–1.03) 0.133 0.94 (0.78–1.13) 0.491
 Log10EFV 0.17 (0.04–0.75) 0.020 0.20 (0.03–1.47) 0.115
 SR 0.92 (0.83–1.03) 0.163 0.98 (0.83–1.01) 0.765
Resistance (presence of ≥1 major mutation) at week 16
 EAMD 0.93 (0.85–1.01) 0.085 0.96 (0.86–1.07) 0.435
 PR-average 0.85 (0.72–0.99) 0.036 0.87 (0.72–1.06) 0.171
 PR-gaps 0.85 (0.71–1.01) 0.066 0.88 (0.69–1.11) 0.287
 CPC 0.90 (0.80–1.01) 0.069 0.93 (0.82–1.06) 0.316
 Log10EFV 0.34 (0.08–1.81) 0.228 0.43 (0.07–2.66) 0.362
 SR 0.93 (0.83–1.03) 0.147 0.97 (0.85–1.11) 0.647
  1. Univariate models use only the adherence variable in the model with the outcome variable, multivariable models include the adherence variable and three baseline variables (CD4 cell count, log HIV-RNA and age) with the outcome variable. There are four outcome variables: the risk of virological failure to >40 copies/ml at week 48, the risk of virological failure to >400 copies/ml at week 16, the risk of resistance (presence of ≥1 IAS major mutation at genotyping) at weeks 16 and 48
  2. aEAMD = electronic adherence monitoring device data; PR-average = average pharmacy refill data; PR-gaps = pharmacy refill gaps data; CPC = clinic-based pill count data; EFV = efavirenz mid-dosing interval data; SR = 3-day self-recall data
  3. Those results that are significant (p < 0.05) are in italics