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Table 1 Enrolment characteristics by care start cohort

From: Trends in clinical characteristics and outcomes of Pre-ART care at a large HIV clinic in Nairobi, Kenya: a retrospective cohort study

Year of enrolment 2004–05 2006–07 2008–09 2010–11 2012–13 2014–15 Overall Chi Square for trend p value
n = 789 n = 1435 n = 1538 n = 1438 n = 1830 n = 1600 n = 8630
n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%)
Gender
Female n (%) 493 (62.5) 920 (64.1) 995 (64.7) 914 (63.6) 1118 (61.1) 968 (60.5) 5408 (62.7) 0.0106
Age (in yrs.)  
Mean (sd) 38.2 (8.6)  38.3 (9.0)  37.6 (9.5)  37.3 (9.8)  37.3 (10.0)  36.8 (10.7)  37.5 (9.7) 
Median (IQR) 37 (32–43) 37 (32–44) 37 (31–43) 36 (30–43) 37 (30–44) 36 29–44)  37 (31–44) 
Age group n (%)
15–19 3 (0.4) 8 (0.6) 21 (1.4) 19 (1.3) 44 (2.4) 45 (2.8) 140 (1.6) 0.0001
20–24 14 (1.8) 46 (3.2) 66 (4.3) 93 (6.5) 118 (6.5) 143 (8.9) 480 (5.6)
25–34 275 (34.9) 478 (33.3) 528 (34.4) 506 (35.2) 583 (31.9) 514 (32.1) 2884 (33.4)
35–44 335 (42.5) 587 (40.9) 590 (38.3) 505 (35.1) 663 (36.2) 525 (32.8) 3205 (37.2)
45–54 121 (15.4) 239 (16.7) 254 (16.5) 233 (16.2) 328 (18) 282 (17.6) 1457 (16.9)
55+ 41 (5.2) 77 (5.4) 79 (5.1) 82 (5.7) 94 (5.1) 91 (5.7) 464 (5.4)
Marital status n (%)
Single 159 (20.2) 281 (19.6) 295 (19.2) 339 (23.6) 500 (27.3) 477 (29.8) 2051 (23.8) 0.0034
Married 473 (60) 837 (58.3) 942 (61.3) 834 (58) 946 (51.7) 738 (46.1) 4770 (55.3)
Divorced/separated 38 (4.8) 105 (7.3) 93 (6.1) 90 (6.3) 169 (9.2) 171 (10.7) 666 (7.7)
Widowed 91 (11.5) 165 (11.5) 152 (9.9) 116 (8.1) 171 (9.3) 142 (8.9) 837 (9.7)
Not documented 28 (3.6) 47 (3.3) 56 (3.6) 59 (4.1) 44 (2.4) 72 (4.5) 306 (3.6)
Residency n (%)
Rural 185 (23.5) 257 (17.9) 296 (19.3) 187 (13.0) 186 (10.2) 62 (3.9) 1173 (13.6) 0.0001
Urban 537 (68.1) 1081 (75.3) 1145 (74.5) 1182 (82.2) 1444 (78.9) 1362 (85.1) 6751 (78.2)
Not documented 67 (8.5) 97 (6.8) 97 (6.3) 69 (4.8) 200 (10.9) 176 (11.0) 706 (8.2)
Patient source n (%)
VCT 271 (34.4) 588 (41) 650 (42.3) 628(4 3.7) 793 (43.3) 812(5 0.8) 3742 (43.4) 0.0001
PMTCT 202 (25.6) 296 (20.6) 293 (19.1) 232 (16.1) 159 (8.7) 107 (6.7) 1289 (14.9)
TB clinic 87 (11) 189 (13.2) 164 (10.7) 189 (13.1) 90 (4.9) 1 (0.1) 720 (8.3)
In-patient 59 (7.5) 114 (7.9) 129 (8.4) 98 (6.8) 174 (9.5) 190 (11.9) 764 (8.9)
Out-patient 9 (1.1) 16 (1.1) 14 (0.9) 22 (1.5) 63 (3.4) 11 (0.7) 135 (1.6)
Other facility 13 (1.7) 32 (2.2) 29 (1.9) 28 (2) 169 (9.2) 32 (2) 303 (3.5)
Other source 42 (5.3) 67 (4.7) 85 (5.5) 69 (4.8) 215 (11.8) 416(26) 894 (10.4)
Not documented 106 (13.4) 133 (9.3) 174 (11.3) 172 (12) 167 (9.1) 31 (1.9) 783 (9.1)
HIV diagnosis n(%)
YoEnr ≠ YoDg 48 (6.1) 163 (11.4) 226 (14.7) 247 (17.2) 343 (18.7) 234 (14.6) 1261 (14.6) 0.0412
YoEnr = YoDg 345 (43.7) 737 (51.4) 760 (49.4) 684 (47.6) 787 (43.0) 588 (36.8) 3901 (45.2)
YoDg not documented 396 (50.2) 535 (37.3) 552 (35.9) 507 (35.3) 700 (38.3) 778 (48.6) 3468 (40.2)
Clinical stage n (%)
Stage 1&2 305 (38.7) 650 (45.3) 890 (57.9) 899 (62.5) 1043 (57) 915 (57.2) 4702 (54.5) 0.0001
Stage 3&4 448 (56.8) 742 (51.7) 608 (39.5) 501 (34.8) 600 (32.8) 440 (27.5) 3339 (38.7)
Not documented 36 (4.6) 43 (3) 40 (2.6) 38 (2.6) 187 (10.2) 245 (15.3) 589 (6.8)
CD4 count
Median (IQR) 178 (67–330) 197 (80–380) 273 (128–458) 320 (158–507) 279 (111–490) 259 (101–483) (257) (109–460)  
CD4 group n (%)
0–100 145 (18.4) 303 (21.1) 192 (12.5) 170 (11.8) 332 (18.1) 290 (18.1) 1432 (16.6) 0.0001
101–200 86 (10.9) 214 (14.9) 166 (10.8) 182 (12.7) 232 (12.7) 189 (11.8) 1069 (12.4)
201–250 50 (6.3) 67 (4.7) 89 (5.8) 86 (6) 106 (5.8) 92 (5.8) 490 (5.7)
251–350 43 (5.5) 142 (9.9) 145 (9.4) 156 (10.9) 188 (10.3) 148 (9.3) 822 (9.5)
351–500 51 (6.5) 140 (9.8) 166 (10.8) 216 (15) 241 (13.2) 168 (10.5) 982 (11.4)
>500 47 (6) 159 (11.1) 194 (12.6) 288 (20) 341 (18.6) 285 (17.8) 1314 (15.2)
Not documented 367 (46.5) 410 (28.6) 586 (38.1) 340 (23.6) 390 (21.3) 428 (26.8) 2521 (29.2)
Opportunistic infections n (%)
TB 91 (11.5) 178 (12.4) 161 (10.5) 144 (10) 231 (12.6) 133 (8.3) 938 (10.9) 0.0726
PCP 33 (4.2) 60 (4.2) 73 (4.8) 74 (5.2) 89 (4.9) 26 (1.6) 355 (4.1) 0.0271
Cryptococcal disease 4 (0.5) 8 (0.6) 16 (1) 9 (0.6) 15 (0.8) 9 (0.6) 61 (0.7) 0.7077
Oral candidiasis 59 (7.5) 106 (7.4) 42 (2.7) 38 (2.6) 38 (2.1) 35 (2.2) 318 (3.7) 0.0001
Oesophageal candidiasis 1 (0.1) 8 (0.6) 6 (0.4) 11 (0.8) 4 (0.2) 7 (0.4) 37 (0.4) 0.9132
Kaposi’s sarcoma 12 (1.5) 12 (0.8) 20 (1.3) 12 (0.8) 8 (1) 11 (0.7) 85 (1) 0.1126
Other OIa 197 (25) 423 (29.5) 441 (28.7) 502 (34.9) 648 (35.4) 402 (25.1) 2613 (30.3) 0.0162
Any OIb 301 (38.2) 601 (41.9) 617 (40.1) 656 (45.6) 863 (47.2) 519 (32.4) 3557 (41.2) 0.8563
Presenting symptoms n (%)
Abdominal pain 38 (4.8) 53 (3.7) 55 (3.6) 57 (4) 76 (4.2) 85 (5.3) 364 (4.2) 0.089
Headache 50 (6.3) 75 (5.2) 97 (6.3) 84 (5.8) 111 (6.1) 116 (7.3) 533 (6.2) 0.21
Cough 167 (21.2) 206 (14.4) 264 (17.2) 217 (15.1) 315 (17.2) 284 (17.8) 1453 (16.8) 0.8723
Chest pain 47 (6) 1 (2.9) 68 (4.4) 46 (3.2) 65 (3.6) 74 (4.6) 341 (4) 0.6866
Any symptom 389 (49.3) 643 (44.8) 662 (43) 526 (36.6) 813 (44.4) 862 (53.9) 3895 (45.1) 0.0369
  1. Italic values indicate overall summary statistics
  2. VCT voluntary counselling and testing; PCP pneumocystis carinii pneumonia
  3. aOther OIs includes all major and minor OIs not listed in table PMTCT prevention of mother to child transmission
  4. bAny OIs includes both OIs listed and not listed in table TB tuberculosis