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Table 1 Alcohol use vs condom use

From: Targeting vulnerable populations: a synthetic review on alcohol use and risky sexual behaviour among migrant populations

Authors Sample Alcohol patterns measurements Alcohol-related sexual risks Association: alcohol use and sexual risk
Kissinger et al. [17] 180 male Latino immigrant workers
Mean age: 33
Cross-sectional/global association study
Frequency of alcohol use (last week)
Binge drinking (consuming more than 4 drinks in one sitting)
Inconsistent condom use, Multiple sexual partners, paid sex Migrant binge drinkers were more likely not to have used condom in their last sexual intercourse, in week before the survey (40 vs 21 % OR 2.11 CI 1.06–4.20, p < 0.05), compared to not binge drinkers
Zaller et al. [19] 358 female migrants working in entertainment venues
Mean age: 23.5
Cross-sectional/global association study
AUDIT >8 (problem drinking); >16 (probable dependence) (quantity of alcohol use) Condom use (previous 6 months) Female migrants working in entrainment Venus were more likely to have never used a condom during vaginal sex in the previous 6 months (OR 1.89 CI 1.12–3.11). Additionally, they had been drunk before their last sexual encounter (OR 2.24, CI 1.07–4.65), compared to less intoxicated women
Ford and Chamarathrithirong [18] 3426 Male migrant workers
Age: 15–49 years
Cross-sectional/situational study
Alcohol use before sex Condom use Migrants who reported drinking alcohol with sex workers were less likely to always use a condom (OR 0.67, CI 0.52–0.85, p < 0.001) than those who did not drink alcohol
Verma et al. [16] 7602 Male migrant workers, migrant FSWs, clients of FSWs
Mean age: 26.5 (male migrant
Mean age: 30 (FSWs)
Mean age: 26.5 (clients of FSWs
Cross-sectional/situational study
India (Asia)
Alcohol use prior to sex (last month)
Type of alcohol use in place of destination (last month)
Number, type of sexual partners sex, multiple partners, paid sex condom use This study found that inconsistent condom use with paid partners was significantly higher if the migrants workers, FSWs and clients of FSWs consumed alcohol prior to sex than when they did not (19 vs 39 % OR 2.7, CI 2.0–3.5, p < 0.001); (24 vs 43 % OR 3.0, CI 2.3–3.9, p < 0.001) and (24 vs 43 % OR 2.7, CI 2.0–3.5, p < 0.001), respectively
Inconsistent condom use among migrants male workers, FSWs and clients of FSWs with non-paid/casual sex partners were both significantly higher if migrants consumed alcohol prior to sex than when they did not (80 vs 79 % OR 0.9, CI 0.7–1.3, p < 0.001); (46 vs 57 % OR 1.5, CI 1.1–2.0, p < 0.001) and (55 vs 74 %, OR 2.7, CI 1.8–4.1) respectively
Sanchez [35] 278 male Latino immigrant workers
Mean age: 37
Cross-sectional/global association study
USA Florida
Frequency and quantity of alcohol, AUDIT, Unprotected sex under influence of alcohol in the past 30 days Unprotected sex This study revealed that migrants living in migrant camps were more likely to report unprotected sex while under influence of alcohol (OR 7.53 CI 4.31–13.09), compared to migrants who lived on their own or in someone else’s house
Organista and Kubo [20] 102 male Mexican/Latino immigrant workers
Mean age: 31
Cross-sectional/global association study
Quantity e frequency of alcohol use, (last 6 months) Unprotected sex This study did not find any significant associations between alcohol consumption and unprotected sex with FSWs (p < 0.052)
Wong et al. [21] 239 male sex workers, rural to urban migrants
Mean age: 25
Cross-sectional/global study
Quantity of alcohol use (intoxication) Condom use Thirty four percent of male sex workers answered “yes” to the question “Have you ever had sex without a condom because you were under the influence of alcohol?” However no statistical tests were performed for this result so it is not possible to compare if condom use was more than when not under the influence of alcohol
Rojas et al. [22] 527 male Latino immigrants
Age: 18–39
Based in Longitudinal study (3 years) data collection (Global association study)
Frequency and quantity of alcohol use; AUDIT (3 months prior to immigration sexual risk behaviour) Unprotected sex Findings of this study showed during pre-immigration, higher levels of alcohol use was associated with lower a lower frequency of condom use (ß = −0.15, p < 0.01), more sexual partners (b = 5.28, p < 0.001) and more recurrent exchanges of sex for money or drugs (b = 5.30, p < 0.001), as well as more sexual acts under the influence of alcohol (b = 5.52, p < 0.001)
Rao et al. [23] 4595 Male migrants
Age: 15–49
Cross-sectional/global study
Frequency of alcohol use Inconsistent condom use Migrants who regularly consume alcohol were significantly more likely to have had unprotected sex with FSWs, than those who do not consume alcohol (29 vs 5 % OR 7.87 CI 4.62–13.40, p < 0.001)
Liu et al. [24] 307 male migrant MSM
Mean age: 24
Cross-sectional/global study
Frequency of alcohol use Condom use The study concluded that alcohol intoxication was not significantly associated with condom use/non-use among migrant MSM
He et al. [25] 239 male migrant MSM-money boys and 100 general male migrant
Mean age MSM: 25
Mean age: 30
situational study
Alcohol use before sex Unprotected sex with casual partners It was observed there was no statistical difference in terms of condom use under influence of alcohol, 34 % of participants from both groups reported having unprotected sex while under influence of alcohol (p = 0.347). However, migrant MSM presents the possibility for more risky sexual behaviour. For instance, MSM are more likely to have casual sex or one-night stands (82 vs 34 % p < 0.001) compared to general male migrant