Skip to main content

Table 4 Risk factors for poor quality of life

From: Lipodystrophy among HIV-infected patients: a cross-sectional study on impact on quality of life and mental health disorders

  Poor quality of lifea (≤50% visual score)
Univariate regression M1: p-value ≤0.2 in univariate model regression M2: Clinical risk factors
OR (95%IC) p-values OR (95%IC) p-values OR (95%IC) p-values
Patient characteristics
 Age (≥50 years) 0.62 (0.35–1.11) 0.109* 1.16 (0.38–3.54) 0.794 1.73 (0.52–5.68) 0.365
 Gender (F) 2.09 (1.16–3.74) 0.014* 1.05 (0.35–3.10) 0.930 1.49 (0.46–4.78) 0.502
 BMI (≥30 kg/m2)b 0.90 (0.53–2.33) 0.828 1.01 (0.14–7.18) 0.988
 Triglycerides (≥2.0 mmol/L) 0.62 (0.33–1.16) 0.135* 0.60 (0.19–1.94) 0.397   
HIV characteristics
 HIV duration (≥ 10 years) 0.43 (0.21–0.92) 0.030* 0.14 (0.03–0.79) 0.026** 0.10 (0.01–0.63) 0.014**
 CDC HIV stage (B&C)c 1.52 (0.84-–2.77) 0.170* 0.81 (0.27–2.39) 0.697 0.95 (0.30–3.00) 0.936
 CD4 (≤300 cells/mm3) 0.57 (0.20–1.64) 0.300 0.09 (0.01–1.04) 0.054
 HIV viral load (≥40 copy/mL) 2.55 (1.04–6.2) 0.039* 10.4 (1.73–2.55) 0.011** 10.39 (1.79–60.16) 0.009**
 Current use of efavirenz 1.46 (0.69–3.06) 0.316   
Questionnaire assessments
 Severe LD (LDCD score ≥23 points)d 1.02 (0.45–2.33) 0.949 6.25 (1.33–29.40) 0.020** 5.22 (1.07–25.37) 0.040**
 HOPS score:e
  Atrophy observed by patients 0.51 (0.27–0.99) 0.047* 0.49 (0.12–2.07) 0.334 0.27 (0.05–1.40) 0.120
  Atrophy observed by physicians 0.51 (0.26–1.00) 0.051* 1.13 (0.30–4.26) 0.860 1.47 (0.37–5.84) 0.580
  Hypertrophy observed by patients 1.37 (0.73–2.58) 0.325 0.50 (0.10–2.49) 0.396
  Hypertrophy observed by physicians 0.75 (0.38–1.47) 0.400 0.56 (0.13–2.39) 0.438
  Presence of depression (BDI score ≥19)f 7.33 (3.64–14.77) 0.001* 3.62 (0.99–13.27) 0.053 4.67 (1.08–20.31) 0.040**
  Presence of anxiety (STAI-Y-B score ≥46)g 8.44 (4.37–16.30) 0.001* 7.10 (1.99–25.30) 0.003** 7.83 (1.91–32.03) 0.004**
  1. aQuality of Life Quantitative scale numbered 0%–100 according to the short version of EQ-5D-3L score.
  2. bBMI: body mass index (bodyweight in kilogram/(height in meter).
  3. cCDC HIV stage: according to CDC Classification System for HIV Infection used by the United States Center for Disease Control and Prevention.
  4. dSevere LD: according to LDCD score Lipodystrophy Case Definition by Carr et al.
  5. eAtrophy/Hypertrophy observed by patients/physicians: according to HOPS score by Lichtenchtein et al.
  6. fPresence of depression: according to Beck Depression Inventory score by Beck definition (BDI).
  7. gPresence of anxiety: according to State Trait Anxiety Inventory by Spielberger definition (STAI-Y-B).
  8. * Significant p-value in univariate model <0.2.
  9. ** Significant p-value <0.05.