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Table 2 Risk factors for MRSA colonization: Univariate analysis

From: Prevalence of and risk factors for MRSA colonization in HIV-positive outpatients in Singapore

Vañable MRSA Position n (%)* MRSA Negatve n (%)* OR (95% CI) P value
Demographics     
Age(median, range), years 50 (30–67) 43 (18–73) 1.1 (1.00-1.11) 0.036
Age>=65 1 (6.7) 7 (2.5) 2.8 (0.32-24.32) 0.352
Gender, Male 14 (933) 243 (86.5) 2.2 (0.28-17.13) 0.455
AIDS-related infections     
Tuberculosis 3 (20.0) 46 (16.4) 1.3 (0.35-4.71) 0.713
Pneumoncystic jiroveci pneumonia 8 (53.3) 73 (26.0) 3.3 (1.14-9.30) 0.027
Bacterial Pneumonia 4 (26.7) 24 (8.5) 3.9 (1.15-13.17) 0.029
Cytomegalovirus infection 3 (20.0) 25 (8.9) 2.6 (0.68-9.68) 0.166
Skinlesion 6 (40.0) 70 (24.9) 2.0 (0.69-5.85) 0.200
Lymphoma 3 (20.0) 4 (1.4) 17.3 (3.48-86.15) <0.001
Toxoplasmosis 1 (6.7) 6 (2.1) 3.3 (0.37-29.08) 0.287
Exposure to Health Facilities     
Prior hospitalization in the past one year 9 (60) 44 (15.7) 81 (274–23.84) <0.001
Outpatient visit to CDC in the past one year 15 (100) 259 (92.2) NC 0.260
Admission to Intensive care unit in the past one year 1 (6.7) 1 (0.4) 20.0 (1.19-336.64) 0.038
Polyclinic visit in the past one year* * 7 (46.7) 125 (44.5) 1.1 (0.39-3.09) 0.870
Surgery in the past one year* * 1 (6.7) 11 (3.9) 1.8 (0.21-14.55) 0.603
Presence of Percutaneous Device in the past one year* * 11 (73.3) 47 (16.7) 13.7 (4.18-44.84 <0.001
Urinary catheterization in the past six months* * 1 (6.7) 4 (1.4) 5.0 (0.52-47.22) 0.165
Household member hospitalized more than two times in the past one year * * 5 (33.3) 28 (10.0) 4.5 (1.44-14.16) 0.010
Patient contact with a health care worker in the past 6 month * * 5 (33.3) 29 (10.3) 4.3 (l.39-13.59) 0.012
Drug history     
Recent intravenous antibiotic usage 8 (72.7) 37 (78.7) 0.7 (0.16-3.23) 0.669
Oral antibiotic usage in the past three months 11 (73.3) 96 (34.2) 5.3 (1.64-17.09) 0.005
On antiretroviral therapy in the preceding one year 14 (93.3) 238 (84.7) 2.5 (0.32-17.74) 0.376
Current use of Co-trimoxazole 4 (26.7) 77 (27.4) 1.0 (0.29-3.12) 0.950
Beta lactam antibiotic usage in the past six months 5 (33.3) 10 (3.6) 13.6 (3.90-47.07) <0.001
Others     
History of previous MRSA colonization 2 (13.3) 7 (2.5) 6.0 (1.14-31.89) 0.035
Most recent CD4<20O 9 (60) 71 (25.3) 4.4 (1.53-12.90) 0.006
  1. *Unless otherwise indicated.
  2. * * Data collected by questionnaire.
  3. NC = not calculable.