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Table 3 Relationships between HIV-1 proteins and autophagy

From: Dual role of autophagy in HIV-1 replication and pathogenesis

HIV-1 protein Relationship with autophagy References
Gag In macrophages: Gag colocalizes with LC3, perhaps to promote virion assembly. [39, 45]
Env In bystander T cells and neuronal cells: Env induces autophagy and promotes autophagic T cell death. [47, 58]
Nef Nef interacts with IRGM to induce autophagy. Nef also acts as an "antiautophagic maturation factor" and blocks the late proteolytic stage of autophagy. [52, 39]
Tat In macrophages: Tat blocks IFN-γ-induced LC3 expression and inhibits autophagy. [59]
  In bystander HUVEC*: Tat increases autophagy. [60]
  1. * Human umbilical vein endothelial cells.