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Table 1 Major human autophagy-related genes and their functions

From: Dual role of autophagy in HIV-1 replication and pathogenesis

Stage of autophagy Gene Alternate name Chromosome Function in autophagy References
Initiation of autophagy
  mTOR   1p36.2 Negative regulator of autophagy. [4]
  RPTOR   17q25.3 Acts to regulate mTOR. [9]
  ULK1 ATG1 12q24.3 Components of ULK1 protein kinase complex. [10]
  ATG13   11p11.2 [11]
  RB1CC1 FIP200 8q11.23 [12]
  C12orf44 ATG101 2q13.13 [11]
Autophagosome formation
  ATG9A,B   2q35, 7q36 Components of ATG9-WIPI complex and Vps34-beclin1 class III PI3-kinase complex. [3, 13]
  WIPI ATG18 17q24.2 [14]
  PIK3C3 VPS34 18q12.3 [3]
  PIK3R4 VPS15 3q22.1  
  BECN1 ATG6 17q21 [15]
  ATG14   14q22.3 [15]
  UVRAG VPS38 11q13.5 [3, 16]
  Rubicon KIAA0226 3q29  
  AMBRA1   11p11  
  ATG2A, B   11q13, 14q32 [17, 18]
  ATG12   5q22 Autophagosome formation; Atg12 conjugation. Atg7 and Atg10 are E1- and E2-like enzymes respectively. [19]
  ATG5   6q21 [18]
  ATG16L ATG16 2q37.1 [20]
  ATG7   3p25.3 [21]
  ATG10   5q14.1 [19]
  MAP1LC3B ATG8 16q24.2 Autophagosome maturation; LC3/Atg8 conjugation. [3]
  GABARAP ATG8 17p13.1 [22]
  GABARAPL2 GATE16 16q22.1  
  ATG7   3p25.3 [21]
  ATG3   3q13.2 [23]
  ATG4   Xq22.3 [24]
Autophagosome-lysosome fusion and degradation
  TFEB   6p21 Transcription factor that regulates Atg and lysosomal genes. [7]
  RAB7   3q21 Mediates fusion between autophagosome and lysosome. [25, 26]