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Table 2 Women's perspectives on barriers to ART and PMTCT: reported barriers which delayed or denied HIV prevention and treatment

From: Health system weaknesses constrain access to PMTCT and maternal HIV services in South Africa: a qualitative enquiry

Individual barriers Reported in the following sites
No money for transport Johannesburg hospital, Eastern Cape clinic
Fear of positive HIV test All facilities
Denial of positive HIV result (i.e., received positive result but did not trust the result Johannesburg hospital, Eastern Cape academic hospital
Refused testing All facilities
Health personnel  
Judgmental attitude All facilities
Stigmatizing attitude (name calling, blame, shunning) Johannesburg hospital, both E. Cape hospitals
No health personnel available to provide HIV testing All facilities
No health personnel available to provide counselling (e.g., regarding treatment and infant feeding options) All facilities
Clerk turns patient away at first booking Johannesburg hospital
Health personnel did not provide ARV prophylaxis during labour/delivery All hospitals (clinic does not perform deliveries)
Health system  
HIV test kit not available Eastern Cape clinic
Nevirapine stockout Eastern Cape clinic