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Table 2 Demographic, Clinical and Laboratory Characteristics of Study Patients with AIDS-Related Cryptococcal Meningitis

From: Utility of clinical assessment, imaging, and cryptococcal antigen titer to predict AIDS-related complicated forms of cryptococcal meningitis

  All patients with cryptococcal meningitis Uncomplicated cryptococcal meningitis patients Complicated cryptococcal meningitis patients P value
  n = 82 n = 68 n = 14  
Age 38 (19 - 57) 38 (19 - 57) 36 (25-48) 0.54
Race/ethnicity     
   White 30(36.7) 28(41.2) 2(14.3)  
   Latino 31(37.8) 24(35.3) 7(50.00)  
   Black 17(20.7) 13(19.1) 4(28.6) 0.17
   Asian 2(2.4) 1(1.5) 1(7.1)  
   Other 2(2.4) 2(2.9) 0  
HIV risk factor     
   MSM 49 (59.8) 38(55.8) 11 (78.7)  
   Heterosexual 18 (22.0) 17 (25.0) 1 (7.1)  
   IVDA 13 ( 15.8) 11 (16.2) 2 (14.2) 0.51
   Hemophilia 1 ( 1.2) 1 (1.5) 0  
   Unknown/other 1 (1.2) 1 (1.5) 0  
CD4 cell count (× 106/l) 39.4 (2-256) 38.7 (2-256) 42.7 (3-139) 0.77
HIV plasma load, log10 copies/ml a 5.3 (4.1-6.2) 5.3 (4.1-6.2) 5.5 (4.8-5.9) 0.48
Meningeal signsb 12 (14.6) 8 (11.8) 4 (28.6) 0.21
Initial altered mental status(Glasgow scale ≤ 13)b, 21 (25.6) 15 (22.1) 6 (42.9) 0.18
Focal neurological findingsb 10 (12.2) 3 (4.4) 7 (50) 0.0001
Seizures b 5 (6.1) 3 (4.4) 2 (14.3) 0.20
CSF opening pressure (cmH20)c 30 (5-61) 26.9 (5-57) 43.4 (15-61) 0.0001
CSF     
   wbc (/μl) 45.9 (0-500) 49.9 ( 0-500) 26.3 (0-210) 0.36
   glucose(mg/dl) 41.5 (2-122) 40.7 ( 2-103) 45.8 (11-122) 0.34
   protein (mg/dl) 77.2 (25-278) 77.9 (27-278) 73.9 ( 25-178) 0.79
CSF India ink positive 71 (88) 57 (85) 14 (100) 0.20
CSF culture positive 78 (98) 64 (97) 14 (100) 1.0
Blood culture positive for Cryptococcus speciesd 43 (75) 35 (75) 8 (80) 1.0
Baseline log 2 serum CRAG 11 (3-16) 11 (3-16) 14 (8-16) 0.001
Baseline log 2 CSF CRAG 10 (1-18) 9 (1-18) 13 (10-16) 0.001
Initial abnormal head CTe 4 (4.9) 1 (1.5) 3 (21.4) 0.03
OUTCOMES f     
Persistent (≥ 14 days) altered mental status 6 (7) 0 6 (43) 0.0001
Persistent (≥ 14 days) focal neurological findings 7(9) 0 7(50) 0.0001
Required CSF surgical shunt 8 (10) 0 8 (57) 0.0001
Death 5 (6) 0 5 (36) 0.0001
  1. Values shown are mean (range) or number of patients (%). MSM, men who have sex with men; IVDA, Intravenous drug use; CSF, cerebrospinal fluid; CRAG, cryptococcal antigen; CT, computed tomography;
  2. a Results available for 50 patients, 44 with uncomplicated and 6 with complicated cryptococcal meningitis.
  3. b Symptoms assessed at the time of initial physical evaluation on the emergency department.
  4. c Measurements in 68 patients, 53 with uncomplicated and 15 with complicated cryptococcal meningitis.
  5. d Results available for 57 patients, 45 with uncomplicated and 12 with complicated cryptococcal meningitis.
  6. e Not performed in 2 patients with uncomplicated cryptococcal meningitis.
  7. f These are components of the definition of complicated meningitis