Atrogin-1, MuRF-1 and TGFβ
mRNA expression patterns in cardiac and plantaris tissues from HIV-1 transgenic rats. Gene expression levels of several catabolic factors including, atrogin-1, MuRF-1 and TGFβ1, were markedly increased in HIV-1 transgenic rat heart tissues compared to controls (A-C, respectively). Similarly, mRNA expression levels of atrogin-1 and TGFβ1 were increased in plantaris muscles from HIV-1 transgenic rats compared to controls (D and F, respectively), however, no changes were detected in the levels of MuRF-1 (E). *, p ≤ 0.05 vs. control.