Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 1 Infectious and noninfectious causes of IRIS in HIV-infected patients

From: Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS): review of common infectious manifestations and treatment options

Infectious Etiologies Noninfectious etiologies
Mycobacteria Rheumatologic/Autoimmune
   Mycobacterium tuberculosis [4, 6, 7, 10, 11, 26, 30-32, 41, 43, 45]    Rheumatoid arthritis [29] Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) [91]
     Graves disease [92], Autoimmune thyroid disease [93]
   Mycobacterium avium complex [4, 5, 23, 31, 94-96] Sarcoidosis & granulomatous reactions [20, 97]
   Other mycobacteria [4, 56, 57, 98, 99] Tattoo ink [100]
Cytomegalovirus [4, 33, 61, 63] AIDS-related lymphoma [101]
Herpes viruses Guillain-Barre' syndrome (GBS) [102]
   Herpes zoster virus [4, 32, 33, 71, 103, 104] Interstitial lymphoid pneumonitis [105]
   Herpes simplex virus [4, 32, 33]  
   Herpes virus-associated Kaposi's sarcoma [4, 32, 106]  
Cryptococcus neoformans [13, 16, 22, 28, 31, 83, 84, 86, 88]  
Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) [8, 14, 32]  
Histoplasmosis capsulatum [107]  
Toxoplasmosis [33]  
Hepatitis B virus [32, 33]  
Hepatitis C virus [4, 32, 33, 108]  
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalitis [12, 33, 109]  
Parvovirus B19 [110]  
Strongyloides stercoralis infection [111] & other parasitic infections [112]  
Molluscum contagiosum & genital warts [32]  
Sinusitis [113]  
Folliculitis [114, 115]