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Table 3 Univariable and multivariable logistic regression of persistent viremia in 647 PLHIV on ART in Guatemala

From: Factors associated with viremia in people living with HIV on antiretroviral therapy in Guatemala

Variable Univariable Multivariable
aOR 95% CI p-value aOR 95% CI p-value
Past AIDS-defining illness 2.62 1.43–4.79 0.002 1.46 0.73–2.91 0.281
Low CD4 count at diagnosis 3.21 1.56–6.60 0.001 2.36 1.07–5.22 0.033
Treatment interruption ≥ seven days 5.73 2.55–12.88 0.000 4.33 1.72–10.87 0.002
Multiple prior ART regimens 6.03 3.23–11.25 0.000 4.63 2.36–9.09 0.000
Multiple-daily dosing 2.24 1.22–4.11 0.009 1.39 0.70–2.76 0.335
Perceived difficulty attending healthcare 1.82 1.00–3.31 0.049 1.66 0.85–3.21 0.132
No comorbidities 1.91 1.05–3.48 0.033 1.92 0.99–3.70 0.051
Age 50 and below 1.09 0.51–2.33 0.809    
Male 1.54 0.83–2.85 0.163    
Not indigenous ethnicity 1.54 0.59–4.03 0.370    
Primary education or less 1.39 0.75–2.55 0.284    
Individual income ≤ CBAa 2.06 0.72–5.91 0.175    
Home owner 1.37 0.71–2.62 0.341    
No basic utilities access 1.32 0.57–3.09 0.509    
Prior illicit drug use 1.35 0.54–3.34 0.511    
Travel time to healthcare > 1 h 1.19 0.63–2.23 0.584    
Borrows money for transport to care 1.22 0.65–2.27 0.530    
Travel cost ≥ $2.6 roundtripb 1.33 0.72–2.41 0.355    
Integrase inhibitor-based ART 1.22 0.66–2.27 0.514    
Sexual orientation
 MSM 1.00   0.123    
 Bisexual 5.74 1.35–24.35 0.018    
 Heterosexual 2.71 0.81–8.98 0.103    
Smoking 2.10 0.96–4.57 0.062    
Excessive alcohol consumption 1.51 0.61–3.75 0.371    
  1. MSM men who have sex with men, ART antiretroviral therapy, aOR adjusted odds ratio, CI confidence interval
  2. Significant variables (p < 0.05) in univariable analysis were entered into multivariable analysis
  3. amonthly income ≤ Canasta Básica Alimentaria, the cost to feed an average Guatemalan household per month
  4. b$2.6 was the median cost reported in the cohort