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Table 2 Factors associated with testing for HIV and hepatitis C virus in the last 6 months

From: Factors associated with testing for HIV and hepatitis C among behaviorally vulnerable men in Germany: a cross-sectional analysis upon enrollment into an observational cohort

  Recent HIV testing Recent HCV testing
n tested/N at risk Unadjusted risk ratio
(95% CI)
Adjusted risk ratio
(95% CI)
n tested/N at riskf Unadjusted risk ratio
(95% CI)
Adjusted risk ratio
(95% CI)
Age (years)
 < 25 80/96 Reference Reference 45/96 Reference  
 25–35 445/496 1.08 (0.98–1.18) 1.03 (0.94–1.12) 265/488 1.16 (0.92–1.46)  
 > 35 396/425 1.12 (1.02–1.23) 1.08 (0.99–1.18) 203/417 1.04 (0.82–1.31)  
Gender identity
 Cisgender man 909/1002 Reference   503/987 Reference Reference
 Transgender/other/unknown 12/15 0.88 (0.68–1.14)   10/14 1.40 (1.00–1.96) 1.52 (1.23–1.87)
Sexual orientation
 Homosexual 850/936 Reference   475/922 Reference  
 Bisexual 42/48 0.96 (0.86–1.07)   19/47 0.78 (0.55–1.12)  
 Heterosexual/other/unknown 29/33 0.97 (0.85–1.10)   19/32 1.15 (0.86–1.55)  
Education level
 Less than secondary 174/199 Reference Reference 94/196 Reference  
 Secondary school 243/283 0.98 (0.91–1.05) 0.99 (0.92–1.05) 143/280 1.06 (0.88–1.28)  
 Undergraduate 160/171 1.07 (1.00–1.14) 1.08 (1.01–1.15) 85/170 1.04 (0.84–1.29)  
 Master’s or doctorate 344/364 1.08 (1.02–1.15) 1.06 (1.00–1.12) 191/355 1.12 (0.94–1.34)  
Marital status
 Single/never married 561/624 Reference   334/616 Reference Reference
 Married/cohabitating 290/315 1.03 (0.98–1.07)   146/307 0.88 (0.77–1.02) 0.88 (0.77–1.00)
 Separated/widowed 66/73 1.00 (0.93–1.09)   33/73 0.84 (0.65–1.09) 0.82 (0.63–1.08)
 Other/unknown 4/5 0.89 (0.57–1.38)   0/5 e e
Self-perceived HIV riska
 None/small/unknown 404/443 Reference   237/437 Reference Reference
 Some 320/357 0.98 (0.94–1.03)   170/354 0.88 (0.77–1.02) 0.89 (0.78–1.01)
 Large/very large 197/217 1.00 (0.95–1.05)   106/210 0.93 (0.79–1.09) 0.92 (0.80–1.07)
Illicit drug use in lifetime
 Nob 309/349 Reference   157/348 Reference Reference
 Yes 612/668 1.03 (0.99–1.08)   356/653 1.21 (1.06–1.38) 1.15 (1.01–1.31)
Binge drinking in last yearc
 No 551/608 Reference   309/600 Reference  
 Yes 317/345 1.02 (0.98–1.06)   169/338 0.96 (0.84–1.10)  
 Missing/unknown 53/64 0.91 (0.81–1.02)   35/63 1.08 (0.85–1.36)  
Hepatitis B statusd
 Susceptible 127/149 Reference Reference 59/148 Reference Reference
 Immune 792/866 1.07 (1.00–1.15) 1.04 (0.97–1.11) 452/851 1.33 (1.08–1.64) 1.24 (1.01–1.50)
 Infected 2/2 1.17 (1.10–1.25) 1.04 (0.94–1.16) 2/2 2.51 (2.06–3.06) 2.54 (1.78–3.61)
Tested for HIV within 6 months
 No    5/95 Reference Reference
 Yes    508/906 10.6 (4.53–25.1) 10.4 (4.44–24.6)
Tested for HCV within 6 months
 No 398/488 Reference Reference   
 Yes 523/529 1.21 (1.16–1.27) 1.21 (1.16–1.26)   
  1. Multivariable Poisson regression with robust error variance was used to estimate risk ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for factors potentially associated with prior testing for HIV and hepatitis C in the 6 months prior to study entry. For each outcome, factors with p < 0.10 in unadjusted models were included in the adjusted model. Statistically significant (p < 0.05) risk ratios are shown in bold
  2. aSelf-perceived HIV risk was assessed with the question, “Thinking about the sex you had in the past 12 months, to what extent would you consider yourself at risk of getting HIV?” with answers provided via a 5-point Liekert scale from “no risk” to “very large risk.”
  3. bTo enable model convergence, missing data were included in the reference category
  4. cBinge drinking was defined as having six or more drinks during one occasion once or more per month during the past year
  5. dHepatitis B status was categorized as “susceptible” if all surface antigen, surface antibody, and core antibody were all non-reactive; “immune” if only the surface antibody or core antibody was reactive; and “infected” if the surface antigen was detectable
  6. eNo participants with “other/unknown” marital status reported HCV testing in the last 6 months; to enable model convergence, these participants were collapsed into the “single/never married” reference category
  7. fOnly participants not previously known to be living with HIV were included in the evaluation of recent HCV testing, since HCV diagnostic testing would not routinely be indicated for people already known to be living with HIV