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Table 1 The characteristics of included studies

From: Food insecurity and the risk of depression in people living with HIV/AIDS: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Study name, yearCountryStudy designMeasures for exposure variablesMeasures for outcome variablesCrude OR/RRAdjusted OR/RRAdjusted for
Palar et al. 2018 [11]USAProspective cohortHFSSMCESDNot available2.39 (1.63–3.42) (Marginal FI)Not available
3.18 (2.14–7.73) (low FI)
4.19 (2.79–6.30) (very low FI)
Kaplusky et al. 2015 [14]USAprospective cohort studyRadimer/corner questionnaireBurnam depression screen2.15 (1.11–5.55)1.5 (0.6–3.7)Social support, emotional support, poverty and drug use
Palar et al. 2015 [27]USAProspective cohort studyHFIASBDI–IINot available1.41 (0.99–2.02)
(Mild FI)
Sex, baseline depression, race, educational status, ART drug use, emergency visits, recent homelessness, heavy drinking, illicit drug use
1.34 (1.02–1.78) (Moderate FI)
1.64 (1.26–2.13) (Severe Fi)
Kinyanda et al. 2011 [13]UgandaCross sectional studySelf-reportMINI2.83 (1.45 = 5.73)2.89 (1.40–5.98)Distance from HIV clinic, knowing HIV status, On ART, social support, stressful life event, stress score index
Davey-Rothwell et al. 2014 [25]USAProspective studyCore Food Insecurity ModuleCESD2.91 (1.63–5.17)2.71 (1.51–4.88)Race, age, income, taking food stamp in last 30 days
Yeneabat et al. 2017 [28]EthiopiaCross sectional studyHFIASCESD5.10 (2.32–10.25)3.83 (1.58–9.32)Sex, age, educational status, marital status, occupational status, place of residence, number of dependent children, access to food, practice of agriculture, ownership livestock, CD4 + count, OIs
Aibibula et al. 2017 [26]USAProspective cohort studyHFSSMCESD1.78 (1.57–2.02) (Moderate FI) 2.38 (2.14–2.65) (severe FI)1.33 (1.20–1.48) (ModerateSex, age, educational status, marital status, sexual orientation, unstable housing, occupational status, clinical stage, median duration of HIV infections, OIs
FI) 1.37 (1.25–1.51) (severe FI)
  1. AIDS Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, BDI Beck Depression Inventory, CES-D Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale Revised, HFIAS Household Food Insecurity Access Scale, HFSSM Household Food Insecurity Survey Module, HIV Human Immunodeficiency Virus, MINI Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview, PLWHA people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS); OR odds ratio, RR relative risk