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Table 1 The characteristics of included studies

From: Food insecurity and the risk of depression in people living with HIV/AIDS: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Study name, year Country Study design Measures for exposure variables Measures for outcome variables Crude OR/RR Adjusted OR/RR Adjusted for
Palar et al. 2018 [11] USA Prospective cohort HFSSM CESD Not available 2.39 (1.63–3.42) (Marginal FI) Not available
3.18 (2.14–7.73) (low FI)
4.19 (2.79–6.30) (very low FI)
Kaplusky et al. 2015 [14] USA prospective cohort study Radimer/corner questionnaire Burnam depression screen 2.15 (1.11–5.55) 1.5 (0.6–3.7) Social support, emotional support, poverty and drug use
Palar et al. 2015 [27] USA Prospective cohort study HFIAS BDI–II Not available 1.41 (0.99–2.02)
(Mild FI)
Sex, baseline depression, race, educational status, ART drug use, emergency visits, recent homelessness, heavy drinking, illicit drug use
1.34 (1.02–1.78) (Moderate FI)
1.64 (1.26–2.13) (Severe Fi)
Kinyanda et al. 2011 [13] Uganda Cross sectional study Self-report MINI 2.83 (1.45 = 5.73) 2.89 (1.40–5.98) Distance from HIV clinic, knowing HIV status, On ART, social support, stressful life event, stress score index
Davey-Rothwell et al. 2014 [25] USA Prospective study Core Food Insecurity Module CESD 2.91 (1.63–5.17) 2.71 (1.51–4.88) Race, age, income, taking food stamp in last 30 days
Yeneabat et al. 2017 [28] Ethiopia Cross sectional study HFIAS CESD 5.10 (2.32–10.25) 3.83 (1.58–9.32) Sex, age, educational status, marital status, occupational status, place of residence, number of dependent children, access to food, practice of agriculture, ownership livestock, CD4 + count, OIs
Aibibula et al. 2017 [26] USA Prospective cohort study HFSSM CESD 1.78 (1.57–2.02) (Moderate FI) 2.38 (2.14–2.65) (severe FI) 1.33 (1.20–1.48) (Moderate Sex, age, educational status, marital status, sexual orientation, unstable housing, occupational status, clinical stage, median duration of HIV infections, OIs
FI) 1.37 (1.25–1.51) (severe FI)
  1. AIDS Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, BDI Beck Depression Inventory, CES-D Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale Revised, HFIAS Household Food Insecurity Access Scale, HFSSM Household Food Insecurity Survey Module, HIV Human Immunodeficiency Virus, MINI Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview, PLWHA people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS); OR odds ratio, RR relative risk