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Table 1 PLWH + T2DM characteristics

From: Retention in care in aging adults with a dual diagnosis of HIV infection and type 2 diabetes mellitus: a longitudinal retrospective cross-sectional study

CharacteristicsPLWH + T2DM
All age groups (N = 798)
OALWH + T2DM (n = 564)YALWH + T2DM (n = 234)Pearson Chi Square or Fisher Exact a(OALWH + T2DM, YALWH + T2DM)
Age (years) mean ± SD55.01 ± 8.9659.35 ± 7.22 (70.7%)44.56 ± 5.10 (29.3%) 
Gender0.01**
 Male618 (77.4%)451 (80%)167 (71.4%)
 Female180 (22.6%)113 (20%)67 (28.6%)
Race/ethnicityN = 794N = 560 0.001***
 White—non-Hispanic326 (41.1%)253 (45.2%)73 (31.2%)
 White—Hispanic98 (12.3%)62 (11.1%)36 (15.4%)
 African American—non-Hispanic320 (40.3%)214 (38.2%)106 (45.3%)
 African American—Hispanic3 (0.4%)0 (0%)3 (1.3%)
 Hispanic18 (2.3%)12 (2.1%)6 (2.6%)
 Others29 (3.7%)19 (3.4%)10 (4.3%) 
Missed visits (count)Range: 0–12Range: 0–5Range: 0–120.23
 Mean ± SD0.29 ± 0.900.24 ± 0.660.41 ± 1.30 
 Zero667 (83.6%)476 (84.4%)191 (81.6%) 
 One84 (10.5%)61 (10.8%)23 (9.8%) 
 Two27 (3.4%)16 (2.8%)11 (4.7%) 
 ≥ Three20 (2.4%)11 (2%)9 (3.7%) 
Missed visits (dichotomous)0.35
 No missed visits667 (83.6%)476 (84.4%)191 (81.6%)
 At least one missed visit1 (16.4%)88 (15.6%)43 (18.4%)
Visit attendanceRange: 0–26 daysRange: 0–26 daysRange: 0–26 days0.01**
Mean ± SD3.07 ± 2.5173.05 ± 2.4173.12 ± 2.747 
Visit adherence0.06
Mean ± SD0.904 ± 0.240.910 ± 0.230.890 ± 0.25
 0–24%33 (4.1%)23 (4.1%)10 (4.3%)
 25–49%15 (1.8%)12 (2.1%)3 (1.3%)
 50–74%62 (7.9%)34 (6%)28 (11.6%)
 75–99%47 (5.9%)37 (6.6%)10 (4.2%)
 100%641 (80.3%)458 (81.2%)183 (78.2%)
4-month visit constancy (intervals with ≥ 1 kept visit)n = 772n = 546n = 2260.67
 Zero7 (0.9%)5 (0.9%)2 (0.9%)
 One207 (26.8%)143 (26.2%)64 (28.3%)
 Two334 (43.3%)244 (44.7%)90 (39.8%)
 Three224 (29%)154 (28.2%)70 (31%)
6-month gap (≥ 189 days between sequential kept visits)n = 606n = 425n = 1810.19
 Retained570 (94.1%)396 (93.2%)174 (96.1%)
 Not retained36 (5.9%)29 (6.8%)7 (3.9%)
HRSA HAB measure (2 kept visits > 90 days apart)n = 606n = 425n = 1810.39
 Retained418 (69%)298 (70.1%)120 (66.3%)0.07
 Not retained188 (31%)127 (29.9%)61 (33.7%)
HbA1c leveln = 179n = 179n = 1790.07
Mean ± SD7.565 ± 1.937.529 ± 1.907.69 ± 2.03 
 ≤ 6.5%64 (35.8%)50 (36%)14 (35%)
 > 6.5%115 (64.2%)89 (64%)26 (65%)
CD4 countn = 194n = 151n = 430.61
Mean ± SD717.84 ± 407.42696.44 ± 387.06792.98 ± 469.35 
 ≥ 500 cells/μL132 (68%)102 (67.5%)30 (69.8%)
 200–499 cells/MlμL49 (25.3%)40 (26.5%)9 (20.9%)
 < 200 cells/μL13 (6.7%)9 (6%)4 (9.3%)
  1. Some variables have different sample sizes
  2. HRSA HAB measure the US Health Resources and Services Administration HIV/AIDS Bureau (HRSA HAB) measure, PLWH + T2DM persons living with HIV and diabetes, all ages, OALWH + T2DM older adults with HIV and T2DM, YALWH + T2DM younger adults with HIV and T2DM
  3. * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01, ***p < 0.00
  4. aPearson Chi Square or Fisher Exact between OALWH + T2DM and YALWH + T2DM