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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of 397 study patients

From: Prediabetes among HIV-infected individuals receiving antiretroviral therapy: prevalence, diagnostic tests, and associated factors

CharacteristicsNormal (n = 236)Prediabetes (n = 133)Diabetes (n = 28)P-value
Age, years, mean ± SD45.1 ± 10.349.4 ± 8.651.2 ± 6.9< .001
Male gender, number (%)123 (52.1)82 (61.7)16 (57.1)0.206
Family history of diabetes, number (%)75 (32.3)42 (32.3)20 (71.4)< 0.001
History of smoking, number (%)75 (31.9)54 (41.5)11 (39.3)0.169
History of alcohol drinking, number (%)129 (54.9)89 (68.5)16 (57.1)0.039
Regular physical activity, number (%)193 (82.8)112 (84.9)23 (82.1)0.867
Sedentary behavior, hours per day, median (IQR)5 (3–8)5 (2–8)4 (2–6)0.340
Underlying diseases, number (%)
 Dyslipidemia59 (25.1)47 (35.6)11 (39.3)0.054
 Hypertension20 (8.5)29 (22.0)12 (42.9)< 0.001
 NAFLD3 (1.3)7 (5.3)1 (3.6)0.071
 Cancer4 (1.7)2 (1.5)2 (7.1)0.170
 Others*6 (2.5)5 (3.8)1 (3.6)0.559
 Duration of HIV infection, years, mean ± SD11.4 ± 6.612.6 ± 5.812.9 ± 6.70.168
Type of ART regimen, number (%)
 NNRTI-containing187 (79.6)94 (70.7)20 (71.4)0.284
 PI-containing43 (18.3)33 (24.8)8 (28.6)0.097
 Duration of ART, years, mean ± SD9.1 ± 5.210.4 ± 5.110.2 ± 5.20.079
 CD4 cell counts, cells/mm3, mean ± SD549 ± 223555 ± 247694 ± 2710.629
 Body weight, kg, mean ± SD60.6 ± 13.062.8 ± 12.265.3 ± 10.40.076
 Body mass index, kg/m2, mean ± SD22.7 ± 3.923.4 ± 3.924.1 ± 2.80.080
 Neck circumference, cm, mean ± SD33.6 ± 3.635.1 ± 3.736.0 ± 3.7<0.001
 Waist circumference, cm, mean ± SD81.2 ± 9.984.5 ± 11.187.6 ± 7.1<0.001
 Hip circumference, cm, mean ± SD93.2 ± 7.094.7 ± 9.594.8 ± 5.50.178
 Alkaline phosphatase, U/L, mean ± SD94.6 ± 33.887.3 ± 32.692.6 ± 34.20.511
 Aspartate transaminase, U/L, mean ± SD32.4 ± 24.634.2 ± 17.138.7 ± 16.40.681
 Alanine transaminase, U/L, mean ± SD35.1 ± 24.442.6 ± 34.857.2 ± 41.0<0.001
 Albumin, g/L, mean ± SD38.9 ± 2.838.2 ± 5.539.8 ± 2.90.485
 Total cholesterol, mg/dL, mean ± SD200 ± 37202 ± 48227 ± 620.006
 HDL-cholesterol, mg/dL, mean ± SD51 ± 1448 ± 1545 ± 90.028
 LDL-cholesterol, mg/dL, mean ± SD125 ± 32123 ± 38143 ± 520.032
 Total cholesterol/HDL-cholesterol ratio, mean ± SD4.1 ± 1.24.4 ± 1.55.1 ± 1.5<0.001
 Triglycerides, mg/dL, mean ± SD125 ± 81186 ± 143208 ± 122<0.001
 Serum creatinine, mg/dL, mean ± SD0.8 ± 0.20.9 ± 0.30.9 ± 0.20.017
 eGFR, mL/min/1.73 m2, mean ± SD97.6 ± 17.691.6 ± 19.287.9 ± 17.90.001
 Hemoglobin, g/dL, mean ± SD13.5 ± 1.713.9 ± 1.813.8 ± 2.40.104
 Hematocrit,  %, mean ± SD39.6 ± 4.640.7 ± 5.041.0 ± 6.00.057
 Mean corpuscular volume (fL), mean ± SD89.4 ± 12.990.5 ± 11.787.1 ± 12.80.407
 Anti-HCV positive, number (%) (n = 208)4 of 128 (3.1)6 of 64 (9.4)1 of 16 (6.3)0.138
  1. ART = antiretroviral therapy; eGFR = estimated glomerular filtration rate; HCV = hepatitis C virus; HDL = high-density lipoprotein; LDL = low-density lipoprotein; NAFLD = nonalcoholic fatty liver disease; NNRTI = non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor; PI = protease inhibitor
  2. *Including cerebrovascular disease, coronary artery disease and chronic kidney disease
  3. Pairwise comparisons of the significant results by Tukey post hoc test
  4. Age: normal vs. prediabetes p < 0.001; normal vs. diabetes p = 0.004; prediabetes vs. diabetes p = 0.628
  5. Neck circumference: normal vs. prediabetes p < 0.001; normal vs. diabetes p = 0.002; prediabetes vs. diabetes p = 0.434
  6. Waist circumference: normal vs. prediabetes p = 0.011; normal vs. diabetes p = 0.006; prediabetes vs. diabetes p = 0.316
  7. Alanine transaminase: normal vs. prediabetes p = 0.050; normal vs. diabetes p = 0.001; prediabetes vs. diabetes p = 0.048
  8. Total cholesterol: normal vs. prediabetes p = 0.924; normal vs. diabetes p = 0.004; prediabetes vs. diabetes p = 0.012
  9. HDL-cholesterol: normal vs. prediabetes p = 0.133; normal vs. diabetes p = 0.070; prediabetes vs. diabetes p = 0.492
  10. LDL-cholesterol: normal vs. prediabetes p = 0.846; normal vs. diabetes p = 0.042; prediabetes vs. diabetes p = 0.025
  11. Total cholesterol:/HDL-cholesterol: normal vs. prediabetes p = 0.052; normal vs. diabetes p < 0.001; prediabetes vs. diabetes p = 0.038
  12. Triglyceride: normal vs. prediabetes p < 0.001; normal vs. diabetes p < 0.001; prediabetes vs. diabetes p = 0.605
  13. Serum creatinine: normal vs. prediabetes p = 0.021; normal vs. diabetes p = 0.289; prediabetes vs. diabetes p = 0.999
  14. eGFR: normal vs. prediabetes p = 0.008; normal vs. diabetes p = 0.023; prediabetes vs. diabetes p = 0.602