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Table 1 Comparison of participants with and without HIVDR testing

From: Pretreatment resistance mutations and treatment outcomes in adults living with HIV-1: a cohort study in urban Malawi

 ParticipantsP
No HIVDR testingHIVDR testing
 n1235197 
 Sex (%)
  Female692 (56.0)122 (61.9)0.140a
  Male543 (44.0)75 (38.1) 
  Age [mean (SD)]36.20 (9.31)35.09 (9.11)0.118b
  BMI [mean (SD)]24.28 (4.91)23.93 (4.63)0.348b
 WHO stage (%)
  1531 (43.0)128 (65.0)< 0.001a
  2183 (14.8)38 (19.3) 
  3429 (34.7)19 (9.6) 
  492 (7.4)12 (6.1) 
 CD4 count (median [IQR])269.5 [125; 420]247.5 [89; 420]0.230c
  Viral load (median [IQR])33 000 [6 696; 140 844]112 599 [21 318; 454 638]< 0.001c
 Outcome (%)
  Alive on ART715 (57.9)119 (60.4)0.020a
  Defaulted267 (21.6)32 (16.2) 
  Transferred out118 (9.6)21 (10.7) 
  Changed ART regimen62 (5.0)3 (1.5) 
  Died41 (3.3)14 (7.1) 
  Withdrawn27 (2.2)7 (3.6) 
  Stopped ART5 (0.4)1 (0.5) 
  1. CD4 count: number of CD-4 positive T-cells per µl; viral load: number of copies of HIV-1 RNA per ml of Serum
  2. n number of participants, SD standard deviation, IQR interquartile range, HIVDR HIV-1 drug resistance mutation, BMI body mass index, kg/m2, WHO stage World Health Organization stage of clinical HIV illness
  3. aChi2 test; bStudent’s t test; cKruskal Wallis test