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Table 3 WM tracts in which clusters showing FA reductions and MD increases in HIV + children compared to controls are located, the function of the implicated tracts and neurodevelopmental tests that assess said function

From: Diffusion tensor imaging point to ongoing functional impairment in HIV-infected children at age 5, undetectable using standard neurodevelopmental assessments

Tract Tract function [53] Griffiths mental development scales
Subscale used
Beery-Buktenica test of visual motor integration
Corticospinal Tract Descending projection fibres connecting motor area to the spinal cord. Arise from motor cortex of pre- and postcentral gyrus Locomotor Beery motor Co-ordination
Superior Longitudinal
Fasciculus
Association fibres—unite different cortical areas within the same hemisphere. Bidirectional bundles connecting the frontal lobe to the parietal, temporal and occipital lobes
Function: integration of auditory and speech nuclei, spatial awareness and symmetric processing
Interruption decreases the ability to repeat spoken language and can also cause unilateral neglect
Hearing and Language
Eye and Hand Coordination
Performance
Beery—VMI
Beery—Visual Perception
Inferior Longitudinal
Fasciculus
Connects the cortices of the anterior temporal and posterior occipital lobe and joins the inferior aspect of the SLF
Function: visual emotion and visual memory
Interruption may result in unilateral visual neglect, visual amnesia and hallucinations and also visual hypo emotionality
Eye and Hand Coordination
Performance
Practical Reasoning
Beery—VMI
Beery-visual perception
Inferior Fronto Occipital Fasciculus Connects the ipsilateral frontal and occipital, posterior parietal and temporal lobes.
Function: integration of auditory and visual association cortices with the prefrontal cortex
Personal-Social
Language
Practical Reasoning
Beery—VMI
Beery-Visual Perception
Forceps Minor The forceps minor is the anterior part of the corpus callosum, it connects the homologous regions of the anterior frontal lobes between two hemispheres. Among the regions included are the front polar cortex which has been shown to be important for cognitive behavioural control, decision making, and attention control Personal-Social
Language
Performance
Practical Reasoning
 
Uncinate Fasciculus Connects the orbital and inferior frontal gyri rectus to the anterior temporal lobe. It has the longest period of development in terms of FA and is the only WM tract that continues to develop beyond 30 years
Part of the limbic system
Integrity of the tract has been related to proficiency in auditory-verbal memory and declarative memory
Language
Performance
Practical reasoning
 
  1. R right, L left, CST corticospinal tract, SLF superior longitudinal fasciculus, ILF inferior longitudinal fasciculus, IFOF inferior fronto occipital fasciculus, UF uncinate fasciculus