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Table 1 Traditional and HIV-associated risk factors for kidney disease

From: Contemporary issues and new challenges in chronic kidney disease amongst people living with HIV

Traditional risk factors
 Age
 Ethnicity
 Socioeconomic factors
 Diabetes mellitus and obesity
 Hypertension
 Tobacco misuse
HIV-associated risk factors
 History of recurrent acute kidney injury
 HIV viral replication
 Nadir CD4+ T cell count
 APOL 1 gene risk alleles
 Anti-retroviral therapy
 Illicit drug use
 Coinfections, esp. Hepatitis B and C