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Table 1 Summary of socio-demographic characteristics of PLHIV and ART adherence at the HIV clinic (2016–2017)

From: Adherence to antiretroviral therapy and the associated factors among people living with HIV/AIDS in Northern Peru: a cross-sectional study

Variable N (%) Non-adherence/total (%) PR [CI 95%] p value
Age** 30 [24–38.50] 29 [24–39]   0.646
Sex
 Male 144 (80.0) 81/144 (56.3)   
 Female 36 (20.0) 24/36 (66.7) 0.84 [0.64–1.11] 0.257
Sexual orientation
 Homosexual 63 (35.0) 35/63 (55.6)   0.853
 Heterosexual 89 (49.4) 53/89 (59.6) 1.07 [0.81–1.42]  
 Bisexual 28 (15.6) 17/28 (60.7) 1.09 [0.75–1.58]  
Marital status
 Single 122 (67.8) 68/122 (55.7)   0.778
 Living with someone/partner 35 (19.4) 22/35 (62.9) 1.13 [0.84–1.52]  
 Married 12 (6.7) 8/12 (66.7) 1.20 [0.78–1.84]  
 Divorced/widowed 11 (6.1) 7/11 (63.6) 1.14 [0.71–1.83]  
Number of children
 0 115 (63.9) 60/115 (52.2)   0.029*
 1 21 (11.7) 13/21 (61.9) 1.19 [0.81–1.73]  
 2 25 (13.9) 19/25 (76) 1.46 [1.10–1.93]  
 ≥ 3 19 (10.6) 13/19 (68.4) 1.31 [0.92–1.86]  
Monthly family incomes** 1000 [625–1500] 1000 [700–1800]   0.302
ART prescription
 ZDV + 3TC + EFV 62 (34.4) 39/62 (62.9)   0.861
 TDF + 3TC + EFV 47 (26.1) 25/47 (53.2) 0.85 [0.61–1.18]  
 ABC + 3TC + EFV 26 (14.4) 14/26 (53.8) 0.86 [0.57–1.28]  
 TDF + 3TC + ATV + RTV 15 (8.3) 9/15 (60) 0.95 [0.61–1.50]  
 Other 30 (16.7) 18/30 (60) 0.95 [0.67–1.35]  
Place of diagnosis
 Hospital 95 (52.8) 60/95 (63.2)   0.035*
 Primary Health Center 59 (32.8) 32/59 (54.2) 0.86 [0.65–1.14]  
 Private lab or clinic 16 (8.9) 5/16 (31.3) 0.49 [0.24–1.04]  
 Ambulatory care 10 (5.6) 8/10 (80) 1.27 [0.90–1.79]  
Viral Load     0.513
  > 40 81 (45.0) 51/81 (63)   0.255
  ≤ 40 99 (55.0) 54/99 (54.5) 1.15 [0.90–1.48]  
Nivel de CD4** 356 [261–527] 362 [264–516]   0.879
 ≤ 300 66 (36.7) 37/66 (56.1)   0.638
 > 300 114 (63.3) 68/114 (59.6) 0.94 [0.72–1.22]  
Years with no ART since diagnosis** 2 [1–5] 2 [1–5]   0.662
 ≥ 1 45 (25) 26/45 (57.8)   0.930
 < 1 135 (75) 79/135 (58.5) 0.99 [0.74–1.32]  
Years living with HIV** 2 [1–3] 2 [1–3]   0.980
 ≥ 1 141 (78.3) 86/141 (61)   0.169
 < 1 39 (21.7) 19/39 (48.7) 1.25 [0.88–1.77]  
Years taking ART** 1 [1, 2] 1 [1, 2]   0.988
 ≥ 1 122 (67.8) 73/122 (59.8)   0.553
 < 1 58 (32.2) 32/58 (55.2) 1.08 [0.82–1.43]  
Opportunistic infection
 Yes 80 (44.4) 43/80 (53.8)   0.265
 No 100 (55.6) 62/100 (62) 0.87 [0.67–1.12]
Pulmonary tuberculosis
 Yes 18 (10.0) 6/18 (33.3)   0.023*
 No 162 (90.0) 99/162 (61.1) 0.55 [0.28–1.06]
Side effects with actual ART prescription  
 Yes 92 (51.1) 62/92 (67.4)   0.012*
 No 88 (48.9) 43/88 (48.9) 1.38 [1.07–1.78]
Action taken with side effects  
 Ask for medical advice 57 (62.0) 38/57 (66.7)   0.031*
 Wait it to stop 28 (30.4) 22/28 (78.6) 1.18 [0.90–1.54]
 Keep taking my ART 4 (4.3) 2/4 (50) 0.75 [0.28–2.03]
 Did not answer 3 (3.3) 0/3 (0)
ART abandoned at anytime
 Yes 83 (46.1) 72/83 (86.7)   0.001*
 No 97 (53.9) 33/97 (34) 2.55 [1.91–3.41]
Length of ART abandon
 > 30 days 15 (18.1) 9/15 (60)   0.001*
 10–30 days 16 (19.3) 14/16 (87.5) 1.46 [0.93–2.29]
 1–9 days 52 (62.7) 49/52 (94.2) 1.57 [1.03–2.39]
Reason for abandonment
 Forgetfulness or neglect when attending a commitment, meeting or work 35 (40.7) 35/35 (100)   0.033*
 Bureaucracy to get access to ART 17 (19.8) 13/17 (76.5) 0.76 [0.59–1.00]
 Lack of privacy or feeling better 11 (12.8) 9/11 (81.8) 0.82 [0.62–1.08]
 Fear of side effects 8 (9.3) 6/8 (75) 0.75 [0.50–1.12]
 Others 15 (17.4) 11/15 (73.3) 0.73 [0.54–1.00]
  1. Zidovudine = ZDV; Lamivudine = 3TC; Efavirenz = EFV; Tenofovir = TDF; Abacavir = ABC; Atazanavir = ATV; Ritonavir = RTV; Lopinavir = LPV; PR = prevalence ratio
  2. * p-value < 0.05 ** Mean [IQR]