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Table 1 Socio-demographic characteristics of male and female adolescents living with HIV

From: Social-support needs among adolescents living with HIV in transition from pediatric to adult care in Cambodia: findings from a cross-sectional study

Socio-demographic characteristics Total (n = 328), n (%) Male (n = 169), n (%) Female (n = 159), n (%) P-value*
Mean age (in years) 15.9 ± 0.8 15.8 ± 0.8 16.0 ± 0.8 0.06
Type of ART regimen 0.91
 First line 183 (82.4) 140 (82.8) 131 (82.4)  
 Second line 36 (16.2) 29 (17.2) 27 (17.6)  
Duration on ART (in months) 101 ± 40 99.8 (40.7) 94.0 (39.6) 0.20
Initial CD4 count (cells/mm3) 632 ± 110 777 ± 1460 632 ± 460 0.35
Latest CD4 count (cells/mm3) 672 ± 284 683 ± 314 660 ± 250 0.44
First viral load count (copies) 34,375 ± 13,958 37,868 ± 13,205 30,662 ± 14,748 0.64
Latest viral load count (copies) 9268 ± 6407 4103 ± 1573 14,759 ± 9041 0.13
Visual adherence scale (%) 95.4 ± 9.6 95.3 ± 9.6 95.4 ± 9.7 0.91
Travel time to ART clinic (min) 48.2 ± 43.4 46.1 ± 41.2 55.5 ± 45.5 0.36
Cost to travel to clinic (USD) 3.4 ± 3.9 3.5 ± 3.9 3.3 ± 4.0 0.61
Level of formal educationa 0.76
 Primary school or lower 92 (28.0) 50 (20.7) 42 (26.4)  
 Secondary school 168 (51.3) 86 (50.9) 82 (51.6)  
 High school or higher 68 (20.7) 33 (19.5) 35 (22.0)  
Ability to cover health expenses 0.11
 No 181 (55.2) 86 (50.9) 95 (59.7)  
 Yes 147 (44.8) 83 (49.3) 64 (40.3)  
Family has an ID poor card 0.04
 No 190 (57.9) 88 (52.1) 102 (64.2)  
 Yes 112 (34.2) 63 (37.3) 49 (30.8)  
 Don’t know 26 (7.9) 18 (10.7) 8 (5.0)  
Access to the health equity fund <0.001
 No 185 (56.4) 109 (64.5) 76 (47.8)  
 Yes 126 (38.4) 45 (35.7) 81 (50.9)  
 Don’t know 17 (5.2) 15 (8.9) 2 (1.3)  
Covered by health insurance 0.02
 No 289 (88.1) 148 (87.6) 141 (88.7)  
 Yes 148 (87.6) 0 (0.0) 6 (3.8)  
 Don’t know 33 (10.1) 21 (12.4) 12 (7.5)  
Currently living with 0.33
 Parents 140 (42.7) 73 (43.2) 67 (42.1)  
 Grandparents 49 (14.9) 29 (12.7) 20 (12.6)  
 Relatives 106 (32.3) 54 (32.0) 52 (32.7)  
 In an orphanage 27 (8.2) 12 (7.1) 15 (9.4)  
 Other 6 (1.8) 1 (0.6) 5 (3.1)  
Type of accommodation 0.94
 Flat/apartment 19 (8.9) 10 (8.7) 9 (8.4)  
 Hut 12 (5.4) 7 (6.1) 5 (4.7)  
 Mid-size country house 173 (73.7) 88 (78.7) 85 (79.4)  
 Mansion/large country house 12 (5.4) 6 (5.2) 6 (5.6)  
 Other 6 (2.7) 4 (3.5) 2 (1.9)  
Family possessions
 Running water 123 (55.4) 61 (53.0) 62 (57.9) 0.46
 Electricity 195 (87.8) 102 (88.7) 93 (86.9) 0.69
 Television 167 (75.2) 88 (76.5) 79 (73.8) 0.64
 Radio 77 (34.7) 45 (39.1) 32 (29.9) 0.15
 Fridge 30 (13.5) 13 (11.3) 17 (15.9) 0.32
 Private latrine 182 (82.0) 96 (83.5) 86 (80.4) 0.55
Mother is still alive 0.18
 No 167 (50.9) 80 (47.3) 87 (54.7)  
 Yes 161 (49.1) 89 (52.7) 72 (45.3)  
Mother’s education levela 0.12
 No education 20 (12.7) 7 (8.1) 13 (18.1)  
 Primary school 53 (33.5) 27 (31.4) 26 (36.1)  
 Secondary school 24 (15.2) 14 (16.3) 10 (13.9)  
 High school or higher 24 (15.2) 12 (14.0) 12 (16.7)  
 Don’t know 37 (23.4) 26 (30.2) 11 (15.3)  
Father is still alive 0.82
 No 198 (60.4) 101 (59.8) 97 (61.0)  
 Yes 130 (39.6) 68 (40.2) 62 (39.0)  
Father’s education levela 0.04
 No education 9 (5.6) 4 (6.2) 3 (4.3)  
 Primary school 33 (26.2) 12 (18.8) 21 (33.9)  
 Secondary school 18 (14.3) 8 (12.5) 10 (16.1)  
 High school or higher 28 (24.3) 9 (14.1) 14 (22.6)  
 Don’t know 45 (35.7) 31 (48.4) 14 (22.6)  
Main daily caregiver 0.57
 Parent 187 (57.0) 102 (60.4) 85 (53.5)  
 Grand parent 5 (1.5) 2 (1.2) 3 (1.9)  
 Sibling 24 (7.3) 9 (5.3) 15 (9.4)  
 Relatives 100 (30.5) 50 (29.6) 50 (31.4)  
 Orphanage/NGO staff 12 (3.7) 6 (3.6) 6 (3.8)  
Main caregiver’s education levela < 0.001
 Primary school or lower 14 (7.2) 2 (2.1) 12 (12.1)  
 Secondary school 40 (20.5) 8 (8.3) 32 (32.3)  
 High school 11 (5.6) 6 (6.2) 5 (5.1)  
 University or higher 29 (14.9) 16 (16.7) 13 (13.1)  
 Don’t know 101 (51.8) 64 (66.7) 37 (37.4)  
  1. ART antiretroviral therapy, HIV human immunodeficiency virus, NGO non-governmental organization, USD United States Dollar
  2. * Chi square or Fisher’s exact test was used as appropriate for categorical variables, Student’s t-test was used for continuous variables
  3. aPrimary = less than or equal to 6 years, secondary = 7–9 years, high school = 10–12 years