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Table 2 Alcohol use vs MSP, type of sexual partners (paid, non-paid/casual partners), and premarital sex

From: Targeting vulnerable populations: a synthetic review on alcohol use and risky sexual behaviour among migrant populations

Authors Sample Alcohol patterns measurements Alcohol-related sexual risks Association: alcohol use and sexual risk
Weine et al. [26] 400 male labour migrants
Mean age: 32.8
Cross-sectional/global association study
Russia
Heavy alcohol drinks (>3/week) Number and type of sexual partners Migrants that have more vaginal sex with women other than their steady sexual partners in the previous month had a significantly positive association with heavy alcohol drinking—imbibing more than three times per week (b = 0.24, p < 0.004)
Amirkhanian et al. [27] 499 Male labour migrants
Mean age: 31.9
Cross-sectional/global association study
Russia
Quantity and frequency of alcohol use Total number of female sexual partners in the past year and in the past 3 months This study revealed that the number of casual female partners over a 3 month period was considerably linked to alcohol use (b = 0.36 p < 0.004) and paid sex (OR 1.05 CI 1.02–1.09 p < 0.001)
Kissinger et al. [17] 180 male Latino immigrant workers
Mean age: 33
Cross-sectional/global association study
USA
Frequency of alcohol use (last week)
Binge drinking (consuming more than four drinks in one sitting)
Inconsistent condom use, multiple sexual partners, paid sex Migrant binge drinkers are more likely to have high risk partners (FSWs), than those who did not drink large quantities of alcohol (74 vs 60 %, OR 2.20 CI 1.25–5.19, p < 0.05)
Verma et al. [16] 7602 Male migrant workers, migrant FSWs and migrant clients of FSWs
Mean age: 26.5 (Male migrant.
Mean age: 30 (FSWs)
Mean age: 26.5 (clients of FSWs
Cross-sectional/situational study
India (Asia)
Alcohol use prior to sex (last month)
Type of alcohol use in place of destination (last month)
Number, type of sexual partners sex, multiple partners, paid sex condom use The proportion of male migrant workers who reported sex with three or more partners was significantly higher among alcohol users than among non-users (13 vs 3 % OR 5.1, CI 4.0–6.5, p < 0.001)
Sex with any partner in the previous 12 months, was significantly higher for those migrants who consumed alcohol than for those who did not (32 vs 10 %, OR 5.0, CI 4.3–5.8, p < 0.001) The same result applied to those who had sex with both paid and non-paid/casual partners (9 vs 25 %, OR 6.5, CI 4.6–9.1, p < 0.001)
Male migrants who drink alcohol are more prone to engage in sex with paid, non-paid/casual partners than those who do not drink (47 vs 29 %, OR 1.9, CI 1.2–2.8, p < 0.01)
Migrant FSWs who drink alcohol are more likely to report sex with three or more sexual partners than those who do not drink (68 vs 63 %, OR 1.2, CI 1.1–1.5, p < 0.001) However, migrants who had sex with both paid, not-paid/casual partners showed a higher ratio among drinkers when compared to non-drinkers—(33 vs 24 %, OR 1.5, CI 1.3–1.8, p < 0.001)
Gupta et al. [10] 174.365 male permanent and temporary migrants
Mean Age: 31
Cross-sectional/global association study
India
Frequency of alcohol use Number and type of sexual partners; transactional sex; unprotected sex (Last 12 months), STI Circular migrants—away from home for more than 1 month—who drink alcohol almost daily, are more likely to have two or more sexual partners, (12 vs 3 %, p < 0.001). They are more prone to have high risk sexual intercourse (14 vs 4 %, p < 0.001), and resort to paid sex (5 vs 3 %, p < 0.001) than those who are not mobile
Roy et al. [29] 437 male rural to urban migrant taxi drivers
Mean age: 28.3
Cross-sectional/global association study
Bangladesh
Frequency of alcohol use Patterns of sexual intercourse, types and numbers of sexual partners and condom use patterns Migrants had higher odds of risky sexual behaviour such as patterns of sexual intercourse, types and number of sex partners, and condom use patterns—if they regularly drank alcohol (OR 8.7, CI 4.9–14.3, p < 0.001)
Tiruneh [28] 756 male seasonal migrants
Mean age: 22
Cross-sectional/situational study
Ethiopia
Alcohol use at last sexual intercourse Multiple sexual partners Seasonal workers who consumed alcohol before sexual intercourse were 1.69 times more likely to have multiple sexual partners (≥2), during the preceding 6 months, as compared to those who did not drink alcohol (OR 1.69, CI 1.01–2.83, p < 0.046)
Althoff et al. [31] 113 male Latino immigrant men
Mean age: 32.2
Longitudinal/global study
USA
Binge drinking (having five or more drinks in one sitting) Multiple Sexual partnerships Binge drinking was one of the primary predictors of multiple sexual partnership (OR 2.02 CI 1.22–3.35 p < 0.01)
Wilson et al. [32] 128 Male Mexican immigrants
Age: 18-60
Cross-sectional study/global studies
USA
Frequency of alcohol use Sex with FSWs and STIs This study revealed slightly more than 14 % of the men consumed alcohol 5 or more days per week and they reported to have sex with commercial sex worker in the year preceding the study (OR 35.8, CI 3.58–333.36, p < 0.002)
Lin et al. [30] 2.153 male young rural–urban migrants
Age: 18–30
Cross-sectional/global association study
China
Frequency and quantity of alcohol use, alcohol intoxication (last month) Premarital sex, number of sexual partners, transactional sex, transactional sex This study demonstrated that overall, intoxicated respondents were more likely to engage in premarital sex than those who had not been drinking (76 vs 60.2 %, OR 1.30, p < 0.001); to have multiple sexual partners (14 vs 5 %, OR 1.57, p < 0.001); to buy sex (13 vs 5 %, OR 1.88, p < 0.001); and to sell sex (10 vs 4 %, OR 1.99, p < 0.001). No significant difference was found between men and women
Chen et al. [7] 3026 male and female (rural migrants and rural and urban residents)
Age: 18–40
Cross-sectional/global study
China
Frequency of alcohol use (intoxication) Commercial sex This showed the rural male migrant were more likely to engage in alcohol intoxication combined with commercial sex, than female rural migrant (9 vs 2 %). However, rural male migrants were less likely to combine alcohol intoxication to commercial sex, when compared to the non-migrant rural and urban residents (9 vs 9.8 vs 13 %, p < 0.05)