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Table 3 Unadjusted cox proportional hazard model for blip participants compared to controls

From: Factors associated with HIV viral load “blips” and the relationship between self-reported adherence and efavirenz blood levels on blip occurrence: a case–control study

  Blip group
N (%) or mean (SD)
Control group
N (%) or mean (SD)
Univariate hazard ratio (95 % CI) P value
Number, n 99 673   
Demographics
Mean age at ART (years) 34.4 (14.9) 32.9 (13.4) 1.00 (0.98,1.02) 0.9756
Mean age at HIV diagnosis (years) 29.8 (12.4) 29.1 (12.8) 1.00 (0.98,1.02) 0.7467
Gender
 Male 94 (94.9) 630 (93.6) Ref  
 Female 5 (5.1) 43 (6.4) 0.66 (0.27,1.63) 0.3735
Race
 Caucasian 38 (38.4) 267 (39.7) Ref  
 African-American 49 (49.5) 278 (41.3) 1.22 (0.80,1.86) 0.3632
 Other 12 (12.1) 128 (19.0) 0.73 (0.38,1.39) 0.3332
Time from HIV negative to seroconversion (years) 0.7 (0.6) 0.6 (0.6) 1.24 (1.04,1.49) 0.0186
Time from seroconversion to first ART (years) 1.7 (2.8) 1.7 (2.5) 1.02 (0.95,1.11) 0.536
Viral load at HIV diagnosis (log10copies/mL) 4.6 (0.9) 4.4 (1.0) 1.32 (0.99,1.76) 0.0577
Viral load at ART initiation (log10copies/mL) 4.8 (0.9) 4.5 (1.0) 1.45 (1.11,1.89) 0.0064
Viral load at ART Initiation 69,368 (115,313) 32,281 (86,112) 1.00 (1.00,1.00) 0.3596
CD4 cell count at HIV diagnosis (cells/mL) 432 (308) 439 (265) 1.00 (1.00,1.00) 0.2717
CD4 cell count at HIV diagnosis (cells/mL)
 <350 33 (36.3) 181 (29.9) Ref  
 350 to <500 25 (27.5) 188 (31.1) 0.74 (0.44,1.24) 0.2563
 ≥500 33 (36.3) 236 (39.0) 0.78 (0.48,1.27) 0.3223
CD4 cell count at ART initiation (cells/mL) 284 (190) 353 (189) 1.00 (1.00,1.00) 0.0553
CD4 cell count at ART initiation (cells/mL)
 <350 64 (68.1) 305 (49.7) Ref  
 350 to <500 22 (23.4) 190 (30.9) 0.61 (0.38,0.99) 0.0472
 ≥500 8 (8.5) 119 (19.4) 0.39 (0.19, 0.82) 0.0131
HIV medication adherence history
Self-reported antiretroviral drug adherence (%)
 ≥85 96 (98.0) 637 (96.2) Ref  
 <85 2 (2.0) 25 (3.8) 0.52 (0.13, 2.10) 0.358
Self-reported last time missed a dose
 Last week 16 (16.3) 98 (14.8) Ref  
 Longer than last week 82 (83.7) 563 (85.2) 0.88 (0.52,1.51) 0.6532
Self-reported missed a dose in the last weekend
 Yes 3 (3.1) 45 (6.8) Ref  
 No 95 (96.9) 612 (93.2) 0.44 (0.14,1.40) 0.166
Self-reported total missed doses in the last 2 weeks
 0 80 (81.6) 529 (80.0) Ref  
 1 or more 18 (18.4) 126 (19.1) 0.94 (0.56,1.57) 0.809
 All 0 (0.0) 4 (0.6)   
 Don’t know 0 (0.0) 2 (0.3)   
  1. Data expressed as N (%) or mean (SD)
  2. ART antiretroviral therapy