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Table 1 Demographics, HIV information and CVD risk factors in ART treated HIV infected participants by gender

From: Assessment of cardiovascular risk factors in people with HIV infection treated with ART in rural South Africa: a cross sectional study

  All participants N = 214, n (%) Females N = 171, n (%) Males N = 43, n (%) P-value
Demographics
 Age (years) 44.8 ± 11.8 43.5 ± 11.6 49.9 ± 11.1 0.001
 Unmarried 164 (76.6) 137 (80.1) 27 (62.8) 0.03
 Secondary education 98 (45.8) 83 (48.5) 15 (34.9) 0.12
 Unemployed 149 (69.6) 129 (75.4) 20 (46.5) 0.001
HIV information
 CD4 count (cells/mm3) 461.9 ± 235.3 485.5 ± 234.1 364.3 ± 216.6 0.001
 Viral load (copies/ml) ≤50 ≤50 ≤50 0.14
 Mean duration of ART in months (N = 200) 36.1 ± 24.4 37.0 ± 24.3 32.5 ± 24.6 0.31
 NVP (NNRTI)-based ART* 25 (12.5) 22 (13.8) 3 (7.5)  
 EFV (NNRTI)-based ART 172 (86) 136 (85.0) 36 (90.0)  
 Alluvia (PI)-based ART 3 (1.5) 2 (1.3) 1 (2.5)  
CVD risk factors
 Tobacco use 45 (21.1) 28 (16.5) 17 (39.5) 0.001
  47 (22.0) 29 (17 %) 18 (41.9 %) 0.001
 Alcohol use
 Physical activity <600 MET-min/wk)
38 (24.2) 37 (29.1 %) 1 (3.3 %) 0.002
 Fruit and vegetables intake (<5 servings/day) 150 (95.5) 121 (95.3) 29 (96.7) 1.00
 Obesity 27 (12.7) 25 (14.6) 2 (4.8) 0.12
 Abdominal obesity 51 (23.9) 44 (25.9) 7 (16.3) 0.23
 Hypertension 56 (26.2) 40 (23.4) 16 (37.2) 0.08
 Diabetes 10 (4.7) 6 (3.5) 4 (9.3) 0.12
 Low HDL 91 (43.8) 71 (42.3) 20 (50.0) 0.38
 Hypercholesterolaemia 69 (33.2) 58 (34.5) 11 (27.5) 0.46
 Hypertriglyceridaemia 35 (16.8) 21 (12.5) 14 (35.0) 0.001
 TC/HDL (≥5) 28 (13.5) 17 (10.1) 11 (27.5) 0.01
 High TG/HDL-C (≥1.49) 38 (18.3) 23 (13.7) 15 (37.5) 0.001
 ApoB/ApoA (≥0.68) 93 (45.4) 74 (44.8) 19 (47.5) 0.86
 Metabolic syndrome 20 (9.6) 15 (8.9) 5 (12.5) 0.56
  1. Diabetes—glucose >7 mmol/l and/or history of diabetes, hypertension—systolic blood pressure >140 and/or diastolic blood pressure >90 or history of high blood pressure, abdominal obesity—waist circumference >88 cm for females and >102 cm for males, obesity—body mass index ≥30 kg/m2, low HDL ≤1.3 for females and 1.1 for males, hypercholesterolaemia—TC ≥ 5 mmol/l, hypertriglyceridaemia—TG ≥ 1.7 mmol/l, high TC/HDL-C >5, TG/HDL-C ≥ 1.49, high ApoB/ApoA >0.68
  2. * ART information was available for 200 participants
  3. ART antiretroviral therapy, HIV human immunodeficiency virus, NVP nevirapine, EFV efavirenz, CVD cardiovascular disease, ApoB apolipoprotein B, Apo A apolipoprotein A, TC total cholesterol, HDL-C high density lipoprotein cholesterol. MET-min/wk metabolic equivalent of task-minutes/week