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Table 1 Characteristics of the study population

From: Lipodystrophy among HIV-infected patients: a cross-sectional study on impact on quality of life and mental health disorders

  N missing All patients Quality of Lifea p-value
Poor (≤50% visual score) High (>50% visual score)
Median (IQR) Median (IQR) Median (IQR)
N = 194 N = 93 N = 95
Patient characteristics
 Sex female, n (%)   88.0 (45.4) 50 (53.8) 34 (35.8) 0.013*
 Age (years)   50.0 (44.0–55.0) 48.0 (43.0–52.0) 51.0 (45.0–59.0) 0.008*
 Ethnicity 45     0.005*
  Caucasians n (%)   108 (72.5) 42 (61.8) 62 (82.7)  
  Africans n (%)   29 (19.5) 21 (30.9) 7 (9.3)  
  Others n (%)   12 (8.0) 5 (7.3) 6 (8.0)  
 Waist/hip ratio 9 0.9 (0.9–1.0) 0.9 (0.8–1.0) 0.9 (0.9–1.0) 0.105
 VAT/SAT ratiob,c 9 0.5 (0.3–1.0) 0.4 (0.2–0.7) 0.5 (0.3–1.1) 0.009*
 Body mass index (kg/m2)d 1 24.0 (22.0–27.0) 24.0 (22.0–27.0) 24.0 (22.0–26.0) 0.547
 Triglycerides (mmol/l)   1.3 (0.9–2.2) 1.2 (0.8–1.9) 1.4 (1.0–2.4) 0.252
 Total cholesterol (mmol/l)   5.1 (4.4–5.7) 5.0 (4.3–5.7) 5.1 (4.7–5.9) 0.105
 HDL cholesterol (mmol/l)   1.2 (0.9–1.4) 1.1 (0.9–1.4) 1.2 (0.9–1.4) 0.795
HIV characteristics
 HIV duration (years) 20 17.0 (11.0–22.0) 15.5 (10.0–21.0) 18.5 (12.0–22.0) 0.099
 CDC HIV stagee 14     0.362
  A, n (%)   85.0 (47.2) 36.0 (41.9) 46.0 (52.3)  
  B, n (%)   33.0 (18.3) 16.0 (18.6) 15.0 (17.0)  
  C, n (%)   62.0 (34.4) 34.0 (39.5) 27.0 (30.7)  
 CD4 (cells/mm3) 4 569.0 (403.0–710.0) 612.0 (411.5–752.0) 533.5 (394.0–700.0) 0.116
 HIV viral load (copy/ml) 2 20.0 (20.0–40.0) 20.0 (20.0–40.0) 20 (20.0–40.0) 0.495
 Antiretroviral therapy, n (%)   192.0 (99.0) 92.0 (98.9) 94.0 (98.9) 0.988
  Protease inhibitors containing, n (%) 1 97.0 (50.5) 42.0 (46.1) 51.0 (54.3) 0.271
  Integrase inhibitor containing, n (%) 1 41.0 (21.3) 17.0 (18.7) 24.0 (25.5) 0.262
  NRTIe containing, n (%) 1 170.0 (88.5) 83.0 (91.2) 81.0 (86.2) 0.280
  NNRTIf containing, n (%) 1 84.0 (43.7) 42.0 (46.1) 41.0 (43.6) 0.729
  Efavirenz, n (%) 1 36.0 (18.6) 20.0 (22.0) 15.0 (16.0) 0.296
  Etravirine, n (%) 1 34.0 (17.6) 16.0 (17.6) 18.0 (19.1) 0.783
  Nevirapine, n (%) 1 14.0 (7.2) 6.0 (6.6) 8.0 (8.5) 0.622
  Other regimens, n (%) 1 7.0 (3.6) 2.0 (2.1) 5.0 (5.5) 0.230
Questionnaire assessments
 Depression (BDI score)g 3     0.001*
  Absent/very subtle (≤10 points), n (%)   61 (31.9) 11.0 (11.8) 50.0 (52.6)  
  Subtle (11–18 points), n (%)   62 (32.5) 30.0 (32.3) 31.0 (32.6)  
  Moderate (19–29 points), n (%)   45 (23.6) 31.0 (33.3) 12.0 (12.6)  
  Severe/very severe (≥30 points), n (%)   23 (12.0) 21.0 (22.6) 2.0 (2.1)  
 Anxiety (STAI-Y-B score)g 3     0.001*
  Absent/very subtle (≤35 points), n (%)   35.0 (18.3) 3.0 (3.2) 32.0 (34.0)  
  Subtle (36–45 points), n (%)   57.0 (29.8) 19.0 (20.4) 36.0 (38.3)  
  Moderate (46–55 points), n (%)   53.0 (27.8) 34.0 (36.6) 19.0 (20.2)  
  Severe/very severe (≥56 points), n (%)   46.0 (24.1) 31.0 (33.3) 6.0 (6.4)  
 Lipodystrophy (LDCD score)i 59     
  Absent/very subtle (≤9.9 points), n (%)   57.0 (42.2) 28.0 (46.7) 27.0 (38.6) 0.581
  Subtle (10–14.9 points), n (%)   35.0 (25.9) 12.0 (20.0) 22.0 (31.4)  
  Moderate (15–22.9 points), n (%)   12.0 (8.9) 6.0 (10.0) 5.0 (7.1)  
  Severe/very severe (≥23 points), n (%)   31.0 (23.0) 14.0 (23.3) 16.0 (22.8)  
  1. aQuality of Life Quantitative scale numbered 0%–100 according to the short version of EQ-5D-3L score.
  2. bVAT: by CT-scan cross-section of 6 mm, level of L5: intra-abdominal adipose tissue.
  3. cSAT: by CT-scan cross-section of 6 mm, level of L5: extra-abdominal adipose tissue.
  4. dCDC HIV stage: according to CDC Classification System for HIV Infection by the United States Center for Disease Control and Prevention.
  5. eNRTI: Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors.
  6. fNNRTI: Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors.
  7. gDepression: according to Beck Depression Inventory score by Beck definition (BDI).
  8. hAnxiety: according to State Trait Anxiety Inventory by Spielberger definition (STAI-Y-B).
  9. iLDCD: Lipodystrophy Case Definition by Carr et al.
  10. * Significant p-value <0.05.