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Table 3 Socioeconomic factors associated with the nutritional status

From: Nutritional status and its association with quality of life among people living with HIV attending public anti-retroviral therapy sites of Kathmandu Valley, Nepal

Variables Categories Underweight Well-nourished Crude OR (95% C.I.) P-value Adjusted OR (95% C.I.) P-Value
n(%) n = 60 n (%) n = 241
Age ≤36 years* 41 (25.8) 118 (74.2) 0.55 (0.28-1.09) 0.088   
  >36 years 19 (13.4) 123 (86.6) 1   
Educational status Illiterate 22 (32.4) 46 (67.6) 2.45 (1.33-4.54) 0.004 2.31 (1.10-4.82) 0.027
  Literate 38 (16.3) 195 (83.7) 1  
Gender Female 28 (23.9) 89 (76.1) 1.49 (0.85-2.64) 0.235   
  Male 32 (17.4) 152 (82.6) 1   
Marital status Unmarried 13 (34.2) 25 (65.8) 2.76 (1.36-5.59) 0.005 2.14 (0.94-4.88) 0.701
  Separated/widowed/divorced 16 (32.0) 34 (68.0) 0.91 (0.31-2.22) 0.827 0.74 (0.24-2.29) 0.603
  Married 31 (14.6) 182 (85.4) 1    
Ethnicity Dalits 6 (10.5) 51 (89.5) 2.42 (0.98-5.98) 0.054   
  Non- Dalits 54 (24.1) 190 (75.9) 1   
Wealth quintile Middle class 20 (19.6) 82 (80.4) 1.30 (0.65-2.61) 0.458   
  Lower class 22 (22.2) 77 (77.8) 1.17 (0.54-2.31) 0.649   
  Upper class 18 (18.0) 82 (82.0) 1    
Religion Hindu 44 (20.1) 175 (79.9) 0.76 (0.41-1.41) 0.391   
  Other than Hindu# 16 (19.5) 66 (79.1) 1   
Residence Care homes/Single 16 (41.0) 23 (59.0) 3.45 (1.69-7.05) 0.009 4.47 (1.79-11.15) 0.001
  Family 44 (16.8) 218 (83.2) 1   
Alcohol use No 44 (21.7) 159 (78.3) 0.71 (0.38-1.33) 0.278   
  Yes 16 (16.3) 82 (83.7) 1   
Associated with PLHIV network No 43 (28.6) 150 (71.4) 1.54 (0.83-2.85) 0.175   
  Yes 17 (15.7) 91 (84.3) 1    
Household food security Food insecure 24 (33.8) 47 (66.1) 2.75 (1.50-5.05) 0.001 2.89 (1.39-5.95) 0.004
  Food secure 36 (15.6) 194 (84.3) 1    
Smoking habits No 41 (21.6) 149 (78.4) 0.75 (0.41-1.37)    
  Yes 19 (17.1) 92 (82.9) 1   
HIV related factors
Duration from diagnosis ≤12 months 47 (24.7) 143 (75.3) 0.57 (0.32-1.03) 0.062   
  >12 months 13 (11.7) 98 (88.3) 1    
ART Yes 50 (19.2) 211 (80.8) 0.71 (0.33-1.55) 0.391   
  No 10 (25.0) 30 (75.0) 1    
CD4 count >350 cells/mm3 17 (10.4) 146 (89.6) 0.26 (0.14-0.48) 0.000 0.26 (0.13-0.56) 0.000
  ≤350 cells/mm3 43 (31.2) 95 (68.8) 1    
ART duration ≤12 months 16 (21.1) 60 (78.9) 0.914 (0.46-1.81) 0.797   
  >12 months 44 (19.6) 181 (80.4) 1    
TB infection Yes 17 (40.4) 25 (59.6) 3.42 (1.70-6.86) 0.001 3.16 (1.43-7.01) 0.005
  No 43 (16.6) 216 (83.4) 1    
WHO clinical stage III/IV 41 (29.1) 100 (70.9) 3.04 (1.67-5.55) 0.000 2.09 (1.04-4.21) 0.038
  I/II 19 (11.9) 141 (88.1) 1    
  1. 1 = Reference Category.
  2. *Mean value was used.
  3. #Others include Muslim, Christian, Buddhist and Kirat.
  4. Variables (education, age, gender, marital status, residence, OIs, WHO clinical stage, household food security and CD4 cell counts) are adjusted to minimize the effect of possible confounders in multivariate analysis.