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Table 2 Adjusted Hazard Ratios (HR) of various characteristics on the occurrence of ADRs, HIV Patients on ART, South Africa 2007-2012

From: An assessment of adverse drug reactions among HIV positive patients receiving antiretroviral treatment in South Africa

  1 st ADR 1 st ADR → 2 nd ADR Marginal model Frailty model
Characteristic HR (95% CI) HR (95% CI) HR (95% CI) HR (95% CI)
Gender     
Male 1 1 1 1
Female 1.13 (0.82, 1.55) 1.32 (0.72, 2.42) 1.23 (0.88, 1.72) 1.23 (0.94, 1.62)
Age     
30 and less 1 1 1 1
31 – 37 1.33 (0.81, 2.19) 2.41 (0.54, 10.69) 1.59 (0.95, 2.66) 1.51 (0.94, 2.43)
38 – 44 1.83 (1.12, 3.01)* 3.19 (0.73, 13.93) 2.45 (1.47, 4.10)* 2.07 (1.29, 3.32)*
45+ 1.43 (0.85, 2.42) 3.23 (0.73, 14.29) 2.02 (1.16, 3.51)* 1.80 (1.11, 2.93)*
Clinic     
Clinic A 1 1 1 1
Clinic B 0.77 (0.27, 2.20) - 0.73 (0.25, 2.11) 0.78 (0.28, 2.22)
Clinic C 3.74 (2.54, 5.50)* 2.36 (0.89, 6.22) 4.03 (2.75, 5.91)* 3.20 (2.24, 4.57)*
Clinic D 1.99 (1.10, 3.58)* 2.76 (0.85, 8.99) 2.14 (1.12, 4.09)* 1.96 (1.18, 3.25)*
ART regimens     
1a (d4T, 3TC, EFZ) 1 1 1 1
1b (d4T, 3TC, NVP) 1.01 (0.61, 1.66) 0.65 (0.19, 2.21) 1.08 (0.65, 1.80) 0.99 (0.64, 1.55)
1c (AZT, 3TC, EFZ) 1.86 (1.20, 2.87)* 1.83 (0.91, 3.69) 2.09 (1.35, 3.22)* 1.83 (1.27, 2.62)*
Others 1.00 (0.65, 1.54) 1.18 (0.50; 2.82) 1.35 (0.90, 2.01) 1.43 (0.99, 2.04)
Year started ART     
Before 2009 1 1 1 1
2009 and after 0.78 (0.58, 1.06) 0.41 (0.23, 0.74)* 0.55 (0.40, 0.76)* 0.90 (0.70, 1.16)
  1. *Statistically significant at p-value ≤ 0.05.