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Table 1 Baseline Characteristics among 241 HIV-infected children who received second-line protease inhibitor –based antiretroviral therapy

From: High virologic response rate after second-line boosted protease inhibitor-based antiretroviral therapy regimens in children from a resource limited setting

Characteristics All (n = 241) Single-boosted PIRegimens1(n = 104) Double-boosted PI regimens1(n = 137) P-value
Gender: Male 117 (49) 55 (53) 62 (45) 0.24
Age, years 9.1 (7.2-11.1) 8.9 (6.1-11.1) 9.4 (7.6-11.2) 0.046
Prior to initiate NNRTI regimen
CDC clinical staging     0.04
 N 10 (4.2) 7 (6.7) 3 (2.2)  
 A 58 (24.3) 29 (27.9) 29 (21.6)  
 B 113 (47.3) 39 (37.5) 74 (54.8)  
 C 58 (24.3) 29 (27.9) 29 (21.5)  
CD4 percentage 5 (1–10) 3.5 (1–11) 5 (2–10) 0.53
CD4 cell/mm3 109 (27–410) 109 (21–395) 112 (28–413) 0.51
Prior to switch to second-line boosted -PI regimen
Weight for age Z-score −1.7 (−2.1 to −0.9) −1.4 (−1.9 to −0.7) −1.9 (−2.3 to −1.4) <0.001
CD4% (n = 239) 10 (4–18) 17 (7–24) 6 (2–12) <0.001
CD4 cell/mm3 (n = 238) 195 (70–442) 379 (165–659) 123 (38–273) <0.001
HIV RNA, log 10 copies/mL (n = 227) 4.8 (4.3-5.3) 4.5 (3.9-5.1) 4.9 (4.5-5.4) <0.001
Antiretroviral treatment history
Mono/dual NRTI exposure prior to NNRTI-based regimen 71 (29.5) 23 (22.1) 48 (35.0) 0.03
Duration on NNRTI-based treatment, years 2.2 (1.5-2.9) 2.3 (1.5-3.1) 2.0 (1.4-2.9) 0.04
NNRTI regimen     0.01
 Nevirapine 167 (69.3) 81 (77.9) 86 (62.8)  
 Efavirenz 74 (30.7) 23 (22.1) 51 (37.2)  
NRTI-backbone     
 d4T/3TC 142(58.9) 71 (68.2) 71 (51.8) 0.015
 AZT/3TC 60 (24.9) 25(24.0) 35(25.6)  
 d4T/ddI 17 (7.1) 4 (3.9) 13(9.5)  
 AZT/ddI 14(5.8) 3(2.9) 11(8.0)  
 ddI/3TC 8 (3.3) 1 (1.0) 7 (5.1)  
Multi-NRTI resistance2     <0.001
 No TAMs 45/203(22.2) 38/89 (42.7) 7/114 (6.1)  
 Low grade multi-NRTI 78/203 (38.4) 40/89 (44.9) 38/114 (33.3)  
 High grade multi-NRTI 80/203 (39.4) 11/89 (12.4) 69/114 (60.5)  
  1. Data are presented in median (IQR) or number (%).
  2. 1Single boosted PI regimens include ritonavir-boosted Protease inhibitor plus 2 nucleoside reverse transcriptase. Double-boosted PI regimens included 2 protease inhibitors plus ritonavir with/without NRTI/NNRTI.
  3. 2Definition of multi NRTI resistance: high grade is defined as ≥ 4 thymidine analog associated mutations (TAMs) or the presence of Q151M or 69Insertion. Low grade multi NRTI resistance is defined as 1–3 TAMs and without Q151M and 69insertion.