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Table 5 Pharmacologic modifiers of autophagy

From: Dual role of autophagy in HIV-1 replication and pathogenesis

Drug category Drug or reagent Mechanism References
Inducers and enhancers of autophagy
  Rapamycin* Inhibits mTOR signaling. [4]
  Carbamazepine Inhibition of inositol monophosphatase. [118]
  Lithium Inhibition of inositol monophosphatase. [119]
  Digoxin Undetermined. [120]
  Vitamin E Increases phosphorylation of mTOR substrates. [121]
  Verapamil Reduces calcium flux into the cell. [109]
  Clonidine Reduces cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). [109]
  Trehalose mTOR independent mechanism. [122]
  Tamoxifen Increases the intracellular level of ceramide. [123]
  Niclosamide Inhibits mTOR signaling. [124]
  Rottlerin Inhibits mTOR signaling. [124]
  Amiodarone Inhibits mTOR signaling. [124]
Inhibitors of autophagy
  Chloroquine Blocks the fusion of autophagosomes with lysosomes. [125]
  Verteporfin Inhibitor of autophagosome accumulation. [126]
  3-Methyladenine* Inhibitor of class III PI3K (Vps34). [33]
  Bafilomycin A1* Ion Channel Inhibitor; V-ATPase inhibitor. [34]
  Wortmannin PI3K inhibitor. [127]
  LY294002 PI3K inhibitor. [127]
  Leupeptin Inhibitor of serine and cysteine proteases. [128]
  Asparagine Prevents transfer of autophaged material to lysosomes. [129]
  1. * Commonly used in basic research studies.