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Table 1 Therapeutic history of the patients.

From: Management of HIV-1 associated hepatitis in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: role of a successful control of viral replication

Antiretroviral drugs Period of therapy Reasons for change
Case 1   
ZDV 1990 -1993  
ddI May 1993 - Oct 1993 diarrhoea
ddC Dec 1993 - Jan 1995  
ZDV, 3TC Feb 1995 - Jul 1995  
ZDV, 3TC, SQV Aug 1995 - Feb 1996 diarrhoea
IDV, 3TC, ZDV Mar 1996 - Apr 1998 kidney stones
d4T, EFV, NFV May 1998 - Apr 1999 psichiatric disorders
ZDV, 3TC, ABC, IDV/r May 1999 - Jan 2000 cutaneous reaction
ZDV, 3TC, IDV/SQV/r Feb 2000 - Sep 2000 virologic failure
ddI, d4T, NVP, LPV/r Oct 2000 cutaneous reaction
ddI, d4T, EFV, LPV/r Nov 2000 - Oct 2001  
ddI, d4T, LPV/r Nov 2001 - Oct 2003 virologic failure and LFTs increase
3TC, TDF, EFV Aug 2004 - Jun 2005 failure
fAPV/r, SQV Jul 2005 cutaneous reaction
SQV/r, EFV Aug 2005 - Oct 2005 cutaneous reaction
LPV/r, SQV Oct 2005 - Dec 2005 itching and diarrhoea
LPV/r, 3TC, TDF Dec 2005 - Jun2006 failure
DRV/r, ENF, TDF, ZDV/3TC Aug 2006 - Aug 2007  
DRV/r, RAL, TDF, ZDV/3TC Aug 2007 - Aug 2008 simplification
DRV/r, RAL Aug 2008 - ongoing simplification
Case 2   
ZDV, ddI Nov 1995 - Aug 1996  
ZDV, ddC Sep 1996 - Dec 1996  
ZDV, ddC, IDV Dec 1996 - May 1997  
ZDV, 3TC, IDV Jun 1997 - Nov 1998 kidney stones
NFV, d4T, NVP Dec 1998 - Mar 2000 abdominal pain and diarrhea
ZDV/3TC, SQV/r Mar 2000 - Apr 2000 anemia
d4T, 3TC, SQV/r May 2000 - Mar 2005 lack of adherence and resistance development
LPV/r, 3TC, TDF Apr 2005 - Oct 2005 virologic failure
ATV/r, 3TC, TDF Oct 2005 - Sep 2006 virologic failure and LFTs increase
DRV/r, ENF, RAL Oct 2007 - Feb 2008  
DRV/r, RAL Feb 2008 - ongoing simplification
Case 3   
IDV, 3TC, d4T Dec 1997 - Mar 2002  
NVP, 3TC, d4T Apr 2002 - May 2004 simplification
NVP, 3TC, TDF Jun 2004 - Apr 2006 peripheral neuropathy, lipoatrophy
RAL, TDF/FTC Aug 2009 - ongoing  
  1. Note: GRT, genotypic resistance test; ZDV, zidovudine; ddI, didanosine; ddC, zalcitabine; 3TC, lamivudine; SQV, saquinavir; IDV, indinavir; d4T, stavudine; EFV, efavirenz; NFV, nelfinavir; ABC, abacavir; NVP, nevirapine; LPV, lopinavir; TDF, tenofovir difumarate; fAPV, fosamprenavir; DRV, darunavir; ENF, enfuvirtide; RAL, raltegravir; ATV, atazanavir; FTC, emtricitabine; r = ritonavir booster.