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Table 1 Characteristics of respondents

From: Factors associated with non-adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy in Nairobi, Kenya

Characteristics Adherent   p-value
Variable No; n (%) Total; n (%)  
  Socio-demographic characteristics  
Gender distribution     
All 72 (18) 331 (82) 403 (100)  
Males 25 (18) 116 (82) 141 (35) 0.958
Females 47 (18) 215 (82) 262 (65)  
Mean age     
   All 37.6 yrs 40.2 yrs 39.7 yrs 0.017*
   Male 41.6 yrs 42.8 yrs 42.6 yrs 0.491
   Female 35.4 yrs 38.8 yrs 38.2 yrs 0.012*
Marital status     0.225
   Never married 14 (19) 58 (81) 72 (18)  
   Married 40 (19) 173 (81) 213 (53)  
   Divorced/Separate 13 (23) 44 (77) 57 (14)  
   Widowed 5 (9) 52 (91) 57 (14)  
   Missing 0 4 4 (1)  
Ever widowed?     0.053
   Yes 5 (9) 52 (91) 57 (14)  
   No 67 (20) 275 (80) 342 (85)  
Education level     0.665
   No education 1 (10) 9 (10) 10 (3)  
   Primary 28 (19) 117 (81) 145(36)  
   Secondary 32 (16) 168 (84) 200(50)  
   Post secondary 10 (22) 36 (78) 46 (11)  
   Missing    2  
Monthly Income (USD)     0.734
   Unemployed 27 (20) 110 (80) 137(34)  
   < 60 17 (21) 66 (80) 83 (21)  
   61 - 120 11 (14) 69 (86) 80 (20)  
   121 - 180 2 (9) 21 (91) 23 (6)  
   181 - 240 5 (19) 22 (82) 27 (7)  
   241 - 600 5 (15) 29 (85) 34 (8)  
   600+ 4 (24) 13 (77) 17 (4)  
   Missing    2  
Housing     0.275
   1 room 39 (21) 147 (79) 186(46)  
   2-3 rooms 16 (19) 69 (81) 85 (21)  
   1 bedroom 7 (17) 34 (83) 41 (10)  
   2 bedrooms 4 (8) 48 (92) 52 (13)  
   ≥ 3 bedrooms 6 (15) 33 (85) 39 (10)  
1-3 rooms 55 (20) 216 (80) 271 (67) 0.068
≥ 1 bedrooms 17 (13) 115 (87) 132 (33)  
  Clinical characteristics  
CD4 cell count ≤200 cells/ml     0.025*
Yes 25(26) 71 (74) 96 (24)  
No 44(16) 237(84) 281(70)  
Missing    26 (6)  
Time on ART     0.003*
   3 to 6 months 13(37) 22 (63) 35 (9)  
   6 - 12 months 18(21) 69 (79) 87 (22)  
   1 to 2 years 25(19) 110(81) 135(34)  
   3 years + 16(11) 129(89) 145(36)  
Missing    1  
Adverse effects     
   Nausea 7 (30) 16 (70) 23 (7) 0.898
   Vomiting 1 (8) 11 (92) 12 (4)  
   Diarrhea 3 (23) 10 (77) 13 (4)  
   Neuropathy 3 (10) 27 (90) 30 (9)  
   Itching 6 (23) 20 (77) 26 (8)  
   Rashes 5 (12) 36 (88) 41 (13)  
   Others 6 (15) 33 (85) 39 (12)  
   None 24(17) 114(83) 138(43)  
  ART knowledge   
Health literacy     
   Adhere 57 (17) 272 (83) 329 (82) 0.55
   Condom use 35 (18) 162 (82) 197 (49) 0.959
   Nutrition 43 (16) 233 (84) 276 (68) 0.077
Use     
   Identify drugs 72 (18) 331 (82) 403 (100)  
   Dosage 72 (18) 330 (82) 402 (100)  
   Life-long therapy 72 (18) 328 (82) 400 (99)  
  Social support   
Living with     0.484
   Family 53(17) 268(83) 321(80)  
   Friends 2 (22) 7 (78) 9 (2)  
   Alone 16(22) 56 (78) 72 (18)  
Living with children?     0.345
   No 10(14) 62 (86) 72 (18)  
   Yes 50(18) 235(82) 285(71)  
   Have no children 12(26) 34 (74) 46 (11) 0.122
   Has children 60(17) 297(83) 357(89)  
HIV Status disclosed     0.794
   Yes: 58(18) 271(82) 329(82)  
   No: 13(18) 60 (81) 73 (18)  
Reminded dose by     0.781
   Self 36(19) 151(81) 187(46)  
   Family 35(17) 176(83) 211(52)  
   Friends 1 (20) 4 (80) 5 (1)  
Level of social Support     
   Never (0%) 13(23) 43 (77) 56 (14)  
   Rarely (25%) 5 (28) 13 (72) 18 (5)  
   Sometimes (50%) 12(26) 34 (74) 46 (11)  
   Often (75%) 17(22) 60 (78) 77 (19)  
   Always (> 75%) 24(18) 181(88) 205(51)  
   Missing    1  
Felt social Support     0.030*
   < Sometimes 18(24) 56 (76) 74 (21)  
   > Sometimes 41(14) 241(86) 282(79)  
  Concerns about therapy  
Taking ART worries me     0.378
   Agree 16 (22) 58 (78) 74 (18)  
   Disagree 55 (17) 264 (83) 319 (79)  
   Not sure    10 (3)  
I Worry about long-term effects of ART     0.885
   Agree 31 (19) 135 (81) 166 (41)  
   Disagree 40 (18) 181 (82) 221 (55)  
   Not sure    16 (4)  
Lack understanding of how ART works     0.505
   Agree 28 (20) 115 (80) 143 (35)  
   Disagree 40 (17) 197 (83) 237 (59)  
   Not sure    23 (6)  
Therapy disrupt my life     0.006*
   Agree 20 (29) 49 (71) 69 (17)  
   Disagree 49 (15) 274 (85) 323 (80)  
   Not sure    11 (3)  
I am embarrassed taking ARV     0.162
   Agree 38 (20) 148 (80) 186 (46)  
   Disagree 31 (15) 175 (85) 206 (51)  
   Not sure    11 (3)  
  Reason for not taking therapy  
Implied missed therapy     0.001*
   Gave reason for not taking 50 (24) 156 (76) 206 (51)  
   Never failed 22 (11) 175 (89) 197 (49)  
Reason for not taking medicine     0.000*
   Being busy and forgetting 44 (29) 110 (71) 154 (38)  
   Hiding from colleagues 3 (60) 2 (40) 5 (2)  
   Others 3 (6) 44 (94) 47 (11)  
  1. *Statistically significant at level p < 0.05 by chi-square test