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Table 2 Characteristics of mother-infant pairs in a Zanmi Lasante PMTCT program and matched community controls in rural Haiti**

From: HIV-free survival and morbidity among formula-fed infants in a prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV program in rural Haiti

Infant Characteristic PMTCT (N = 254) Community (N = 254) P-value
Female gender, N (%) 109 (42.9) 123 (51.9) --^
Mean age (months), (SD) 37 (9.7) 36 (10.7) --^
Infant nutrition, N (%)    < 0.0001
   Exclusive breastfeeding* 0 (0) 75 (31.8)  
   Mixed breastfeeding 27 (10.6) 159 (67.4)  
   Formula feeding 221(87.0) 2 (0.8)  
   Unknown 6 (2.4) 0 (0)  
Mean age (months) other food introduced (SD) 6 (3.0) 5 (4.5) 0.003
Mother or Guardian Characteristic (N = 246) (N = 250)  
Mother alive, N (%) 213 (93.8) 209 (92.5) 0.56
Mean age in years (SD) 33 (7.5) 32 (9.1) 0.71
Civil status of mother, N (%)    0.03
   Married or civil partnership 166 (71.9) 186 (80.5)  
   Divorced, separated, widowed or single 65 (28.1) 45 (19.5)  
Educational Level, N (%)    0.04
   None 132 (57.4) 108 (47.0)  
   Primary or partial primary 79 (34.4) 88 (38.3)  
   Secondary 17 (7.4) 33 (14.4)  
   Higher 2 (0.9) 1 (0.4)  
Household Characteristic    
Source of drinking water, N (%)    0.99
   Poor water source 101 (43.9) 102 (44.2)  
   Improved (including ownership of filter) 127 (55.2) 127 (55.0)  
   Purchased 2 (0.9) 2 (0.9)  
Mean duration to fetch water (minutes, SD) 28 (35.7) 27 (32.9) 0.7
Latrine    0.89
   No facilities 128 (55.9) 130 (56.5)  
   Improved latrine 101 (44.1) 100 (43.5)  
Mean time (hours on foot) to ZL clinic (SD) 3.5 (10.91) 2.7 (5.29) 0.31
Mean Poverty Score (SD) 13 (8.2) 13 (9.5) 0.75
Mean Food Insecurity Score (SD) 18 (5.3) 19 (4.7) 0.02
  1. * Exclusive breastfeeding = no formula use, and did not introduce other foods until ≥ 6 months of age
  2. ** Unless otherwise indicated, all characteristics correspond to the time of interview
  3. ^Matched variables
  4. SD = Standard Deviation
  5. ZL = Zanmi Lasante