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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of mother-infant pairs enrolled in a Zanmi Lasante PMTCT program in rural Haiti*

From: HIV-free survival and morbidity among formula-fed infants in a prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV program in rural Haiti

Infant Characteristic N = 254
Female gender, N (%) 109 (42.9)
Birth weight < 2.5 kg, N (%)  
   Yes 30 (15.3)
   No 166 (84.7)
Caesarean delivery, N (%)  
   Yes 2 (0.9)
   No 228 (99.1)
Birth location, N (%)  
   Home 159 (68.8)
   Hospital or health facility 71 (30.7)
   Other 1 (0.4)
ARV regimen after delivery, N (%) 211 (83.1)
Median birth order, (IQR) 3 (2-5)
Infant nutrition, N (%)  
   Exclusive breastfeeding 0 (0)
   Mixed feeding 27 (10.6)
   Never breastfed 221 (87.0)
   Unknown 6 (2.4)
Premature at delivery (< 37 weeks), N (%)  
   Yes 13 (5.4)
   No or unknown 227 (94.6)
Received food assistance from Zanmi Lasante, N (%) 186 (80.9)
Mother/Household Characteristic N = 246
Mean age in years (SD) 33 (7.5)
First received ART, N (%)  
   ≤ 28 weeks gestation (or ≥ 10 weeks before delivery) 148 (58.3)
   28-34 weeks gestation (≥ 4 weeks but < 10 weeks before delivery) 61 (24.0)
   < 4 weeks before delivery but before onset labor 40 (15.8)
   At delivery 5 (2.0)
Mean Poverty Score (Range 0 to 100; SD;) 13 (8.2)
Mean Food Insecurity Score (Range 0 to 27, SD)# 18 (5.3)
Drinking water source, N (%)  
   Improved water source (including filter or purchased water) 129 (56.1)
   Poor water source 101 (43.9)
Latrine, N (%)  
   Improved latrine 101 (44.1)
   No facilities 128 (55.9)
Mean time (hours on foot) to get to ZL clinic (SD) 3.5 (10.91)
  1. * At the time of delivery
  2. ‡ A lower poverty score is associated with an increasing likelihood of being a family living on less than 1 US dollar per day
  3. # A higher food insecurity score is associated with worse food insecurity
  4. ART = Antiretroviral therapy
  5. IQR = Interquartile Range
  6. SD = Standard Deviation
  7. ZL = Zanmi Lasante