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Figure 5 | AIDS Research and Therapy

Figure 5

From: Chronic alcohol ingestion exacerbates skeletal muscle myopathy in HIV-1 transgenic rats

Figure 5

TNFα mRNA levels and phosphorylated p38 are elevated in diseased plantaris muscles. (A) HIV-1-related protein expression increased TNFα mRNA levels. Likewise, twelve weeks of chronic alcohol ingestion increased TNFα levels in otherwise healthy and in HIV-1 transgenic rat plantaris muscles. (B) Twelve weeks of chronic alcohol abuse increased the ratio of phospho-p38/total-p38 in each disease and co-morbid state. Chronic alcohol abuse further increased this ratio in HIV-1 transgenic rat muscle. Total p38 was unchanged in any group (data not shown). Significance was accepted at p ≤ 0.05. *, compared to control-fed, otherwise-healthy rats. #, compared to control-fed, HIV-1 transgenic rat group.

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