TNFα mRNA levels and phosphorylated p38 are elevated in diseased plantaris muscles. (A) HIV-1-related protein expression increased TNFα mRNA levels. Likewise, twelve weeks of chronic alcohol ingestion increased TNFα levels in otherwise healthy and in HIV-1 transgenic rat plantaris muscles. (B) Twelve weeks of chronic alcohol abuse increased the ratio of phospho-p38/total-p38 in each disease and co-morbid state. Chronic alcohol abuse further increased this ratio in HIV-1 transgenic rat muscle. Total p38 was unchanged in any group (data not shown). Significance was accepted at p ≤ 0.05. *, compared to control-fed, otherwise-healthy rats. #, compared to control-fed, HIV-1 transgenic rat group.