Gene levels of TGFβ super family members are differentially regulated in diseased plantaris muscles. Gene expression of myostatin (A) and its receptor activin IIB (B) were up-regulated in alcoholic plantaris muscles regardless of HIV-1-related protein expression. In contrast, TGFβ1 was up-regulated in each disease state (C). Unlike myostatin and activin IIB, TGFβ1 gene levels were higher in the co-morbid model compared to plantaris muscles from control-fed, HIV-1 transgenic rats. Data are represented as means ± range of potential values based on the 2-ΔΔCT method [15, 16] and expressed as fold changes relative to controls (n = 6-7 rats/group). Significance was accepted at p ≤ 0.05. *, compared to control-fed, otherwise-healthy rat group. #, compared to control-fed, HIV-1 transgenic rat group.