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Table 1 Demographic and baseline information by gender and smoking status (n = 119)

From: Effect of smoking on lung function, respiratory symptoms and respiratory diseases amongst HIV-positive subjects: a cross-sectional study

  Gender Smoking status  
  Male (n = 94) Female (n = 25) None (n = 44) Former (n = 23) Current (n = 52) Total (n = 119)
Male, n (%) - - 30 (68) 21 (91) 43 (83) 94 (79)
White, n (%) 83 (88) 13 (52) 28 (64) 19 (83) 49 (94) 96 (81)***##
Age (years), mean (SD) 44.5 (8.3) 39.2 (7.7) 42.7 (7.7) 46.0 (8.8) 42.8 (8.8) 43.4 (8.4) **
Years of living with HIV, mean (SD) 9.6 (6.7) 6.9 (6.0) 7.3 (5.8) 10.6 (6.9) 9.7 (7.0) 9.0 (6.6)
On HAART, n (%) 86 (92) 14 (56) 35 (80) 22 (96) 43 (83) 100 (84) ***
CD4 (cells/mm3), mean (SD) 478 (264) 505 (312) 510 (261) 402 (252) 498 (291) 484 (274)
Undetectable viral load, n (%) 62 (66) 11 (44) 25 (57) 17 (74) 31 (60) 73 (61)
Pack-years in smokers1, mean (SD) 24.0 (17.6) 24.0 (20.7) - 16.8 (13.9) 27.2 (18.7) 24.0 (18.0)#
Marijuana use       ###
   None, n (%) 42 (45) 18 (72) 34 (77) 9 (39) 17 (33) 60 (50)
   Former, n (%) 24 (26) 5 (20) 7 (16) 8 (35) 14 (27) 29 (24)
   Current, n (%) 28 (30) 2 (8) 3 (7) 6 (26) 21 (40) 30 (25)
FEV1 before salbutamol (litres), mean (SD) 3.8 (0.7) 2.7 (0.5) 3.48 (0.87) 3.46 (0.81) 3.62 (0.79) 3.5 (0.8)***
%FEV1 before salbutamol (%), mean (SD) 94.7 (15.8) 86.9 (14.1) 93.6 (14.0) 91.1 (18.3) 93.5 (16.1) 93.1 (15.7)*
FVC before salbutamol (litres), mean (SD) 4.9 (0.8) 3.3 (0.7) 4.26 (1.09) 4.58 (0.89) 4.76 (0.95) 4.5 (1.0)***
%FVC before salbutamol (%), mean (SD) 96.2 (12.5) 88.2 (16.7) 91.4 (13.7) 94.6 (11.7) 97.1 (14.4) 94.5 (13.8)**
Abnormal lung function2, n (%) 16 (17) 8 (32) 8 (18%) 4 (17%) 12 (23%) 24 (20)
Asthma history, n (%) 6 (7) 7 (29) 3 (7) 3 (13) 7 (14) 13 (11)**
Asthmatic by spirometry3, n (%) 3 (3) 2 (8) 2 (5) 1 (4) 2 (4) 5 (4)
Cough, n (%) 49 (52) 12 (48) 16 (36) 8 (35) 37 (71) 61 (51)##
Sputum, n (%) 41 (44) 10 (40) 11 (25) 8 (35) 32 (63) 51 (43)##
Breathlessness, n (%) 6 (6) 2 (8) 0 1 (4) 7 (14) 8 (7)#
Any respiratory symptom4, n (%) 51 (54) 12 (48) 16 (36) 9 (39) 38 (73) 63 (53)##
COPD5, n (%) 4 (4) 0 0 2 (9%) 2 (4%) 4 (3)
Restrictive lung diseases6, n (%) 3 (3) 7 (28) 6 (14%) 1 (4%) 3 (6%) 10 (8)**
Abnormal lung function2 or symptomatic4, n (%) 17 (68) 54 (57) 20 (45) 11 (48) 40 (77) 71 (60)##
  1. P value was obtained by Analysis of variance (ANOVA) for continuous variables listed as mean (SD) and was obtained by χ2 test for categorical variables listed as n (%). Fisher's exact test was adopted if the number of cases in any cell was less than 10.
  2. - Not applicable.
  3. * p < 0.05 by gender. ** p < 0.01 by gender. *** p < 0.001 by gender.
  4. # p < 0.05 by smoking status. ## p < 0.01 by smoking status. ### p < 0.001 by smoking status.
  5. 1Pack-year of smoking was calculated by multiplying the number of packs of cigarette smoked per day and the number of years of smoking. 2Abnormal lung function was defined as either FEV1/FVC < 70% or %FEV1 <80% or %FVC < 80%, either pre- or post-salbutamol test. 3Asthmatic by spirometry was defined as reversible FEV1, which improved more than 12% and 200 ml after salbutamol inhalation. 4Any respiratory symptom was defined as having cough, sputum or breathlessness. 5COPD referred to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, was defined as post-salbutamol FEV1/FVC < 70%. 6Restrictive lung function was defined as FEV1/FVC ≥ 70% and %FVC < 80%, either before or after salbutamol inhalation.