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Table 3 Cytotoxicity of Lemon and Lime Juice and Vinegar in MAGI-CCR5 Cells following a 3 Hour Exposure using Different Toxicity Endpoints

From: Safety and anti-HIV assessments of natural vaginal cleansing products in an established topical microbicides in vitro testing algorithm

   Toxicity Assay Method
   Mitochondrial 1
Reduction of MTS
Membrane
Integrity 2
Cytosolic
Enzyme Release 3
Test Article Unit TC 50
Triton X-100 % 0.02 0.02 0.02
AMD 3100 μM > 10 > 10 > 10
Lemon Juice, natural % 4.0 ± 0.44 4.5 ± 1.0 4.4 ± 0.3
Lemon Juice, neutral pH % > 20 > 20 > 20
Lime Juice. Natural % 3.8 4.1 4.6
Lime Juice, neutral pH % > 20 > 20 > 20
Vinegar, natural % 3.8 4.2 4.8
Vinegar, neutral pH % > 20 > 20 > 20
  1. 1CellTiter 96® AQueous One Solution Cell Proliferation Assay (MTS) (Promega)
  2. 2Live/Dead® Assay for Cell Viability (Invitrogen)
  3. 3Vybrant™ Cytotoxicity Assay (Invitrogen)
  4. 4Data for these assays are reported for a single experiment with 3 replicates, except for the assays with natural lemon juice where the experiment was performed three times and thus the standard deviation is shown.
  5. Juice and vinegar concentrations are expressed as percent (%) solution.