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Table 1 IC50, TC50, and Therapeutic Index (TI) for Lemon, Lime, and Vinegar in Various Cell-based HIV-1 Assays

From: Safety and anti-HIV assessments of natural vaginal cleansing products in an established topical microbicides in vitro testing algorithm

   Lemon Juice Lime Juice Vinegar
   IC 50 TC 50 TI IC 50 TC 50 TI IC 50 TC 50 TI
  Unit % % - % % - % % -
CCR5-tropic Cell-free HIV-1 Entry Assay Natural 1.81 (0.9) 3.8 (0.2) 2.1 (1.7) 1.7 (1.1) 3.8 (0.1) 2.3 (1.9) 2.9 (0.6) 3.0 (0.0) 1.1 (0.2)
  pH Neutral 1.7 (0.3) > 20.0 (0.0) > 11.8 (2.2) 2.0 (0.6) > 20.0 (0.0) > 10.2 (2.8) 23.3 (4.2) 29.2 (2.0) 1.2 (0.3)
CCR5-tropic Cell-associated HIV-1 Transmission Assay Natural 2.0 (3.7) 6.3 (0.3) 3.2 (5.7) 2.4 (2.0) 6.2 (0.6) 1.5 (1.5) 0.8 (0.1) 1.0 (0.8) 1.3 (0.9)
  pH Neutral 2.7 (3.0) 8.5 (0.6) 4.7 (5.6) 4.9 (7.4) 9.0 (1.0) 4.2 (6.1) > 25.0 (0.0) > 25.0 (0.0) 1.0 (0.0)
CXCR4-tropic Cell-free HIV-1 Entry Assay Natural 3.5 (0.4) 4.0 (0.5) 1.2 (0.2) 3.5 (0.5) 4.1 (0.3) 1.2 (0.1) 3.2 (0.2) 3.2 (0.0) 0.9 (0.1)
  pH Neutral 14.1 (2.9) > 20.0 (0.0) > 1.4 (0.3) 13.9 (0.7) > 20.0 (0.0) > 1.4 (0.1) 32.4 (2.0) 31.0 (1.6) 1.0 (0.1)
CXCR4-tropic Fusion Assay Natural 3.4 (0.7) 4.3 (0.3) 1.2 (0.1) 3.4 (0.7) 4.1 (0.8) 1.2 (0.2) 1.7 (0.1) 2.4 (1.5) 1.5 (1.0)
  pH Neutral 3.7 (0.2) 4.6 (0.3) 1.2 (0.1) 3.5 (0.3) 4.3 (0.2) 1.2 (0.1) 17.4 (1.2) 13.8 (0.7) 0.8 (0.1)
PBMC Antiviral Assay Natural 1.3 (0.5) 1.4 (0.3) 1.1 (0.2) 1.4 (0.8) 1.4 (0.4) 1.1 (0.5) 1.2 (0.4) 1.0 (0.2) 0.7 (0.21)
  pH Neutral 1.8 (1.7) 6.7 (8.1) 4.0 (9.0) 1.2 (0.7) 10.6 (17.8) 7.0 (13.5) 4.8 (2.0) 9.6 (3.2) 1.7 (0.4)
  1. 1Median and inter-quartile range
  2. Juice and vinegar concentrations are expressed as percent (%) solution.