HIV-1-Nef-specific CD8+ T cell response. HIV-1-Nef-specific CD8+ T cell response in 11 NP (blue), 10 PR (green) and 22 ART-treated individuals (orange). Nef-specific responses were not analyzed in subject ART07. (A) Frequency of the total Nef-specific CD8+ T cells in NP, PR and ART-treated individuals. (B) Quality of the Nef-specific response. The graph is divided into the CD45RA+ (left part) and the CD45RAneg (right part) CD8+ T-cell populations. All the possible combinations of the responses are shown on the x-axis for NP, PR and ART-treated individuals. Tukey boxes and whisker plots are shown. Significant differences are noted above the graph: (*) p < 0.05, (**) p < 0.01 and (***) p < 0.001. Individual data point representation of selected HIV-1-Nef-specific CD45RA+ (C) or CD45RAneg (D) CD8+ T-cell populations. Percentages of the total responses are shown for IFN-γneg IL-2neg MIP-1β+ CD8+ T cells on the left and for IFN-γ+ IL-2neg MIP-1β+ CD8+ T cells on the right. In all graphs, medians are represented by horizontal bars.