GSH and Cys pools in plantaris muscles from HIV-1 transgenic rats. High performance liquid chromatography was performed on plantaris muscles to detect levels of the thiol pairs GSH and GSSG, and Cys and Cyss. HIV-1-related protein expression increased the levels of GSSG (B) and Cyss (E) compared to controls. Surprisingly, GSH levels were markedly increased in plantaris muscles from HIV-1 transgenic rats (A), which served to normalize the overall oxidative state of the GSH pool (C). In contrast, the overall oxidative state of the Cys pool was significantly increased in HIV-1 transgenic rat plantaris muscles (F). *, p ≤ 0.05 vs. control.