GSH and Cys pools in heart tissues from HIV-1 transgenic rats. High performance liquid chromatography was performed on heart tissues to detect levels of the thiol pairs GSH and GSSG, and Cys and Cyss. HIV-1-related protein expression had no effect on GSH or GSSG levels (A and B), but did increase the overall oxidative state of the GSH pool (C). In contrast, Cys levels were reduced and Cyss levels were elevated in heart tissues from HIV-1 transgenic rats compared to controls (D and E, respectively). Therefore, the Cyss:Cys ratio, a marker of the overall oxidative state of the Cys pool, was significantly increased in HIV-1 transgenic rat hearts (F). *, p ≤ 0.05 vs. control.