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Table 2 Clinical factors associated with the development of IRIS

From: Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS): review of common infectious manifestations and treatment options

Risk factor Reference
Male sex [31]
Younger age [32]
Lower CD4 cell count at ART initiation [4]
Higher HIV RNA at ART initiation [4]
Lower CD4 cell percentage at ART initiation [32]
Lower CD4:CD8 ratio at ART initiation [32]
More rapid initial fall in HIV RNA on ART [31]
Antiretroviral naïve at time of OI diagnosis [31]
Shorter interval between OI therapy initiation and ART initiation [31]
  1. Derived from cohorts where IRIS due to multiple pathogens were reported (i.e. cohorts which examined only TB-IRIS were excluded)