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Table 3 The association between HIV-1 with genital symptoms, clinical signs and sexually transmitted infections among pregnant women in Moshi Tanzania.

From: HIV among pregnant women in Moshi Tanzania: the role of sexual behavior, male partner characteristics and sexually transmitted infections

Predictor N (%) % HIV positive Unadjusted OR (95% CI) P value
Treatment for STI symptoms in past 12 months
   No 1969 (74.2) 5.9 1   
   Yes 685 (25.8) 9.8 1.72 1.25 – 2.35 0.001
Report abnormal vaginal discharge or itch at interview
   No 2200 (82.9) 6.1 1   
   Yes 454 (17.1) 10.8 1.85 1.31 – 2.61 <0.001
Genital ulcer on examination*
   No 2514 (94.7) 7.0 1   
   Yes 41 (1.5) 19.5 3.24 1.47 – 7.12 0.003
Bacterial vaginosis*
   No 2022 (76.2) 5.7 1   
   Yes 533 (20.1) 12.8 2.43 1.77 – 3.33 <0.001
Trichomoniasis*
   No 2428 (91.5) 7.0 1   
   Yes 127 (4.8) 10.2 1.52 0.84 – 2.75 0.171
Candidiasis*
   No 2264 (85.3) 6.9 1   
   Yes 291 (11.0) 8.9 1.32 0.85 – 2.03 0.214
Gonococcal infection (GND)*
   No 2542 (95.8) 7.1 1   
   Yes 13 (0.5) 23.1 3.94 1.07 – 14.43 0.04
Active syphilis
   No 2631 (99.1) 6.8 1   
   Yes 23 (0.9) 26.1 4.86 1.89 – 12.49 0.001
Herpes simplex virus type 2
   No 844 (31.8) 12.3 1   
   Yes 427 (16.1) 18.5 1.62 1.17 – 2.22 0.003
  1. GND = Intracellular gram-negative diplococci on cervical smear.
  2. Vaginal discharge, genital itch, genital ulcer, dysuria, dyspareunia.
  3. *Missing values because 99 women were not examined and/or samples not provided.
  4. Test done on 1271 women only