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Table 4 Distribution and correlates of HIV-1 acquired drug resistance among first-line antiretroviral experienced adults at a rural HIV clinic in coastal Kenya (N = 230)

From: HIV-1 virologic failure and acquired drug resistance among first-line antiretroviral experienced adults at a rural HIV clinic in coastal Kenya: a cross-sectional study

  Acquired drug resistance [row %]
Risk factors Categories No (n = 201) Yes (n = 29) *P-value
Gender Male 51 [94.4] 3 [5.6]  
Female 150 [85.2] 26 [14.8] 0.100
Age group (years) 15.0 – 34.9 61 [76.3] 19 [23.8]  
≥ 35.0 140 [93.3] 10 [6.7] <0.001
Marital status Single 13 [68.4] 6 [31.6  
Married (monogamous/polygamous) 113 [86.3] 18 [13.7]  
Separated/divorced/widowed 75 [93.8] 5 [6.3] 0.013
Religion Christian 132 [87.4] 19 [12.6]  
Muslim 36 [87.8] 5 [12.2]  
Others 33 [86.8] 5 [13.2] 1.000
Education status Primary schooling/less 162 [87.6] 23 [12.4]  
Secondary/higher 39 [86.7] 6 [13.3] 0.807
Group distance (km) <10.0 128 [86.5] 20 [13.5]  
≥10.0 73 [89.0] 9 [11.0] 0.681
Starting 1 st line regimen Zidovudine based 102 [86.4] 16 [13.6]  
Stavudine based 99 [88.4] 13 [11.6] 0.695
Baseline WHO staging I/II 117 [90.0] 13 [10.0]  
III/IV 83 [83.8] 16 [16.2] 0.228
Baseline BMI groups (Kg/m 2 ) < 18.5 82 [88.2] 11 [11.8]  
≥ 18.5 118 [86.8] 18 [13.2] 0.841
Baseline CD4 groups (cells/uL) <100 82 [86.3] 13 [13.7]  
> 100 118 [88.7] 15 [11.3] 0.683
Duration on ART (months) < 12.0 70 [86.4] 11 [13.6]  
≥ 12.0 131 [87.9] 18 [12.1] 0.836
Drug substitution No 145 [87.4] 21 [12.7]  
Yes 56 [87.5] 8 [12.5] 1.000
Follow up WHO staging Stage I/II 119 [91.5] 11 [8.5]  
Stage III/IV 82 [82.0] 18 [18.0] 0.044
Follow up BMI groups (Kg/m 2 ) < 18.5 30 [83.3] 6 [16.7]  
≥ 18.5 171 [88.1] 23 [11.9] 0.417
Follow up CD4 groups (cells/uL) < 350 110 [84.6] 20 [15.4]  
≥ 350 64 [91.4] 6 [8.6] 0.193
MPR adherence ≥ 95% (Satisfactory) 162 [90.5] 17 [9.5]  
< 95% (Unsatisfactory) 31 [72.1] 12 [27.9] 0.004
Viral load (log 10, copies/ml) 0.00 – 4.00 189 [95.5] 9 [4.6]  
  > 4.00 12 [37.5] 20 [62.5] <0.001
  1. Baseline refers to indicators at ART initiation; Follow up refers to indicators at the time of sampling; *Fisher’s exact p-value; BMI (Body Mass Index); WHO (World Health Organization) MPR (Medicine Possession Ratio). Missing data; Baseline WHO staging (n = 1 [0.4%]), Baseline BMI (n = 1 [0.4%]), Baseline CD4 count (n = 2 [0.9%]), CD4 count (n = 31 [13.4%]) and MPR adherence (n = 8 [3.5%]).